Surface layers (S-layers) are proteinaceous arrays covering the cell walls of numerous bacteria. Their suggested properties, such as interactions with the host immune system, have been only poorly described. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of the S-layer from the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 in the stimulation of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). MIMLh5 induced greater production of interferon beta (IFN-β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-12p70, compared to S-layer-depleted MIMLh5 (naked MIMLh5 [n-MIMLh5]), whereas the isolated S-layer was a poor immunostimulator. No differences in the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or IL-1β were found. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2 modified IL-12p70 production similarly in MIMLh5 and n-MIMLh5, suggesting the induction of the same signaling pathways by the two bacterial preparations. Treatment of DCs with cytochalasin D to inhibit endocytosis before the addition of fluorescently labeled MIMLh5 cells led to a dramatic reduction in the proportion of fluorescence-positive DCs and decreased IL-12 production. Endocytosis and IL-12 production were only marginally affected by cytochalasin D pretreatment when fluorescently labeled n-MIMLh5 was used. Treatment of DCs with fluorescently labeled S-layer-coated polystyrene beads (Sl-beads) resulted in much greater uptake of beads, compared to noncoated beads. Prestimulation of DCs with cytochalasin D reduced the uptake of Sl-beads more than plain beads. These findings indicate that the S-layer plays a role in the endocytosis of MIMLh5 by DCs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the S-layer of L. helveticus MIMLh5 is involved in endocytosis of the bacterium, which is important for strong Th1-inducing cytokine production.IMPORTANCE Beneficial microbes may positively affect host physiology at various levels, e.g., by participating in immune system maturation and modulation, boosting defenses and dampening reactions, thus affecting the whole homeostasis. As a consequence, the use of probiotics is increasingly regarded as suitable for more extended applications for health maintenance, not only microbiota balancing. This implies a deep knowledge of the mechanisms and molecules involved in host-microbe interactions, for the final purpose of fine tuning the choice of a probiotic strain for a specific outcome. With this aim, studies targeted to the description of strain-related immunomodulatory effects and the identification of bacterial molecules responsible for specific responses are indispensable. This study provides new insights in the characterization of the food-origin probiotic bacterium L. helveticus MIMLh5 and its S-layer protein as a driver for the cross-talk with DCs.

Surface Layer of Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 Promotes Endocytosis by Dendritic Cells / V. Taverniti, M. Marengo, E. Fuglsang, H.M. Skovsted, S. Arioli, G. Mantegazza, G. Gargari, S. Iametti, F. Bonomi, S. Guglielmetti, H. Frøkiær. - In: APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0099-2240. - 85:9(2019 May), pp. e00138-19.1-e00138-19.11. [10.1128/AEM.00138-19]

Surface Layer of Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 Promotes Endocytosis by Dendritic Cells

V. Taverniti
Primo
;
M. Marengo
Secondo
;
S. Arioli;G. Mantegazza;G. Gargari;S. Iametti;F. Bonomi;S. Guglielmetti
Penultimo
;
2019-05

Abstract

Surface layers (S-layers) are proteinaceous arrays covering the cell walls of numerous bacteria. Their suggested properties, such as interactions with the host immune system, have been only poorly described. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of the S-layer from the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 in the stimulation of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). MIMLh5 induced greater production of interferon beta (IFN-β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-12p70, compared to S-layer-depleted MIMLh5 (naked MIMLh5 [n-MIMLh5]), whereas the isolated S-layer was a poor immunostimulator. No differences in the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or IL-1β were found. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2 modified IL-12p70 production similarly in MIMLh5 and n-MIMLh5, suggesting the induction of the same signaling pathways by the two bacterial preparations. Treatment of DCs with cytochalasin D to inhibit endocytosis before the addition of fluorescently labeled MIMLh5 cells led to a dramatic reduction in the proportion of fluorescence-positive DCs and decreased IL-12 production. Endocytosis and IL-12 production were only marginally affected by cytochalasin D pretreatment when fluorescently labeled n-MIMLh5 was used. Treatment of DCs with fluorescently labeled S-layer-coated polystyrene beads (Sl-beads) resulted in much greater uptake of beads, compared to noncoated beads. Prestimulation of DCs with cytochalasin D reduced the uptake of Sl-beads more than plain beads. These findings indicate that the S-layer plays a role in the endocytosis of MIMLh5 by DCs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the S-layer of L. helveticus MIMLh5 is involved in endocytosis of the bacterium, which is important for strong Th1-inducing cytokine production.IMPORTANCE Beneficial microbes may positively affect host physiology at various levels, e.g., by participating in immune system maturation and modulation, boosting defenses and dampening reactions, thus affecting the whole homeostasis. As a consequence, the use of probiotics is increasingly regarded as suitable for more extended applications for health maintenance, not only microbiota balancing. This implies a deep knowledge of the mechanisms and molecules involved in host-microbe interactions, for the final purpose of fine tuning the choice of a probiotic strain for a specific outcome. With this aim, studies targeted to the description of strain-related immunomodulatory effects and the identification of bacterial molecules responsible for specific responses are indispensable. This study provides new insights in the characterization of the food-origin probiotic bacterium L. helveticus MIMLh5 and its S-layer protein as a driver for the cross-talk with DCs.
cytochalasin D; cytokines; MAPKs; nanoparticles; probiotic; Biotechnology; Food Science; Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology; Ecology
Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/642844
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