The definition of a healthy and sustainable diet is nowadays considered pivotal, but data related to environmental outcomes are still debated. In this study, we compared the carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) of an Italian-Mediterranean (EAT-IT) dietary pattern designed on the "Planetary diet", with a pattern based on the Italian Dietary Guidelines (IDG). The influence of different food categories and food choices on environmental impact was assessed. To this aim, weekly dietary patterns were developed, considering food categories and related portions and frequencies of consumption. Results show that the EAT-IT dietary pattern, compared to the IDG, had a significantly lower CF (2.82 ± 1.07 and 3.74 ± 0.92 kg CO2/day, respectively) but not WF. Protein-rich foods were the main contributors to CF and WF in both dietary patterns. The increased substitution of frozen instead of fresh foods, imported instead of local fruits, greenhouse-grown instead of seasonal vegetables, and processed legume-based foods instead of unprocessed legumes caused an increasing worsening of the CF in both patterns, but with different magnitudes. Our analysis indicated that the EAT-IT dietary pattern can be considered sustainable for CF, but individual choices are likely to largely affect the final environmental outcomes.

The Environmental Impact of an Italian-Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Based on the EAT-Lancet Reference Diet (EAT-IT) / M. Tucci, D. Martini, M. Marino, C. Del Bo', V. Vinelli, P. Biscotti, C. Parisi, R. De Amicis, A. Battezzati, S. Bertoli, M. Porrini, P. Riso. - In: FOODS. - ISSN 2304-8158. - 11:21(2022 Nov), pp. 3352.1-3352.14. [10.3390/foods11213352]

The Environmental Impact of an Italian-Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Based on the EAT-Lancet Reference Diet (EAT-IT)

M. Tucci
Co-primo
Methodology
;
D. Martini
Co-primo
Conceptualization
;
M. Marino
Secondo
Data Curation
;
C. Del Bo'
Methodology
;
V. Vinelli
Formal Analysis
;
P. Biscotti
Formal Analysis
;
R. De Amicis
Data Curation
;
A. Battezzati
Data Curation
;
S. Bertoli
Writing – Review & Editing
;
M. Porrini
Penultimo
Supervision
;
P. Riso
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2022

Abstract

The definition of a healthy and sustainable diet is nowadays considered pivotal, but data related to environmental outcomes are still debated. In this study, we compared the carbon (CF) and water footprints (WF) of an Italian-Mediterranean (EAT-IT) dietary pattern designed on the "Planetary diet", with a pattern based on the Italian Dietary Guidelines (IDG). The influence of different food categories and food choices on environmental impact was assessed. To this aim, weekly dietary patterns were developed, considering food categories and related portions and frequencies of consumption. Results show that the EAT-IT dietary pattern, compared to the IDG, had a significantly lower CF (2.82 ± 1.07 and 3.74 ± 0.92 kg CO2/day, respectively) but not WF. Protein-rich foods were the main contributors to CF and WF in both dietary patterns. The increased substitution of frozen instead of fresh foods, imported instead of local fruits, greenhouse-grown instead of seasonal vegetables, and processed legume-based foods instead of unprocessed legumes caused an increasing worsening of the CF in both patterns, but with different magnitudes. Our analysis indicated that the EAT-IT dietary pattern can be considered sustainable for CF, but individual choices are likely to largely affect the final environmental outcomes.
Mediterranean diet; dietary guidelines; environmental impact; nutrition; planetary healthy diet; sustainability; sustainable healthy diet
Settore MED/49 - Scienze Tecniche Dietetiche Applicate
25-ott-2022
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/946363
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