Purpose: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are bioactive compounds in whole grains, berries, apples, some citrus fruits and coffee, which are hypothesized to promote health-beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of CGA and CA to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages, recognized as a critical stage in the progression of atherosclerosis. Furtherly, the modulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ1 (PPAR-γ1), as transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, was evaluated. Methods: THP-1-derived macrophages were treated for 24 h with 0.03, 0.3, 3 and 30 μM of CGA and CA, tested alone or in combination, and a solution of oleic/palmitic acid (500 μM, 2:1 ratio). Lipid storage was assessed spectrophotometrically through fluorescent staining of cells with Nile red. C/EBPβ and PPAR-γ1 mRNA and protein levels were evaluated by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results: The mix of CGA + CA (1:1 ratio) reduced lipid accumulation at all concentrations tested, except for the highest one. The greatest effect (− 65%; p < 0.01) was observed at the concentration of 0.3 μM for each compound. The same concentration significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated C/EBPβ and PPAR-γ1 gene expression and reduced their protein levels at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that the capacity of CGA + CA mix to reduce lipid storage in macrophages is mediated by a reduction in the expression of transcription factors C/EBPβ and PPAR-γ1.

A mix of chlorogenic and caffeic acid reduces C/EBPß and PPAR-γ1 levels and counteracts lipid accumulation in macrophages / M. Marino, C. Del Bo', M. Tucci, S. Venturi, G. Mantegazza, V. Taverniti, P. Møller, P. Riso, M. Porrini. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. - ISSN 1436-6207. - (2021 Oct 26). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1007/s00394-021-02714-w]

A mix of chlorogenic and caffeic acid reduces C/EBPß and PPAR-γ1 levels and counteracts lipid accumulation in macrophages

M. Marino
Primo
;
C. Del Bo'
Secondo
;
M. Tucci;S. Venturi;G. Mantegazza;V. Taverniti;P. Riso
Penultimo
;
M. Porrini
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Purpose: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are bioactive compounds in whole grains, berries, apples, some citrus fruits and coffee, which are hypothesized to promote health-beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of CGA and CA to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages, recognized as a critical stage in the progression of atherosclerosis. Furtherly, the modulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ1 (PPAR-γ1), as transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, was evaluated. Methods: THP-1-derived macrophages were treated for 24 h with 0.03, 0.3, 3 and 30 μM of CGA and CA, tested alone or in combination, and a solution of oleic/palmitic acid (500 μM, 2:1 ratio). Lipid storage was assessed spectrophotometrically through fluorescent staining of cells with Nile red. C/EBPβ and PPAR-γ1 mRNA and protein levels were evaluated by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results: The mix of CGA + CA (1:1 ratio) reduced lipid accumulation at all concentrations tested, except for the highest one. The greatest effect (− 65%; p < 0.01) was observed at the concentration of 0.3 μM for each compound. The same concentration significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated C/EBPβ and PPAR-γ1 gene expression and reduced their protein levels at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that the capacity of CGA + CA mix to reduce lipid storage in macrophages is mediated by a reduction in the expression of transcription factors C/EBPβ and PPAR-γ1.
phenolic acids; THP-1-derived macrophages; lipid accumulation; PPAR-γ1; C/EBPβ; atherosclerosis
Settore MED/49 - Scienze Tecniche Dietetiche Applicate
26-ott-2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/877828
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