Extending ripening of hard cheeses well beyond the traditional ripening period is becoming increasingly popular, although little is known about the actual evolution of their characteristics. The present work aimed at investigating selected traits of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese ripened for 12, 18, 24, 30, 40 and 50 months. Two cheeses per each ripening period were sampled. Although moisture constantly decreased and was close to 25% in 50-month cheeses, with a parallel increase in cheese hardness, several biochemical changes occurred involving the activity of both native and microbial enzymes. Capillary electrophoresis demonstrated degradation of αs1- and β-casein, indicating residual activity of both chymosin and plasmin. Similarly, continuous release of free amino acids supported the activity of peptidases deriving from lysed bacterial cells. Volatile flavor compounds, such as short-chain fatty acids and some derived ketones, alcohols and esters, evaluated by gas chromatography with solid-phase micro-extraction, accumulated as well. Cheese microstructure was characterized by free fat trapped in irregularly shaped areas within a protein network, with native fat globules being no longer visible. This study showed for the first time that numerous biochemical and structural variations still occur in a hard cheese at up to 50 months of aging, proving that the ripening extension deserves to be highlighted to the consumer and may justify a premium price.
Impact of Extending Hard-Cheese Ripening : A Multiparameter Characterization of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese Ripened up to 50 Months / P. D'Incecco, S. Limbo, J. Hogenboom, V. Rosi, S. Gobbi, L. Pellegrino. - In: FOODS. - ISSN 2304-8158. - 9:3(2020 Mar 02), pp. 268.1-268.15.
|Titolo:||Impact of Extending Hard-Cheese Ripening : A Multiparameter Characterization of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese Ripened up to 50 Months|
D'INCECCO, PAOLO (Primo) (Corresponding)
LIMBO, SARA (Secondo)
PELLEGRINO, LUISA MARIA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||capillary electrophoresis; cheese microstructure; cheese ripening; confocal laser scanning microscopy; free amino acids; proteolysis; ripening extension; volatile compounds|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/15 - Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2-mar-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9030268|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|