Background: Maternal nutrition represents a critical risk factor for adverse health outcomes in both mother and offspring. We aimed to investigate associations between maternal nutritional habits, biomarker status, and pregnancy outcome among Italian healthy normal-weight pregnancies. Methods: Multicenter prospective cohort study recruiting Italian healthy normal-weight women with singleton spontaneous pregnancies at 20 ± 2 weeks (T1) in Milan and Naples. All patients underwent nutritional evaluations by our collecting a 7-day weighed dietary record at 25 ± 1 weeks (T2) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire at 29 ± 2 weeks (T3). Maternal venous blood samples were collected at T3 to assess nutritional, inflammatory and oxidative biomarker concentrations (RBCs folate, vitamin D, hepcidin, total antioxidant capacity). Pregnancy outcomes were collected at delivery (T4). General linear models adjusted for confounding factors were estimated to investigate associations between maternal dietary pattern adherence, nutrient intakes, biomarker concentrations and delivery outcomes. Results: 219 healthy normal-weight pregnant women were enrolled. Vitamin D and RBCs folate concentrations, as well as micronutrient intakes, were consistently below the recommended range. In a multi-adjusted model, maternal adherence to the most prevalent ‘high meat, animal fats, grains’ dietary pattern was positively associated with hepcidin concentrations and negatively associated with gestational age at delivery in pregnancies carrying female fetuses. Hepcidin plasma levels were further negatively associated to placental weight, whereas vitamin D concentrations were positively associated to neonatal weight. Conclusions: A high adherence to an unbalanced ‘high meat, animal fats, grains’ pattern was detected among Italian normal-weight low-risk pregnancies, further associated with maternal pro-inflammatory status and gestational age at delivery. This evidence underlines the need for a dedicated nutritional counseling even among low-risk pregnancies.

Associations between Maternal Dietary Patterns, Biomarkers and Delivery Outcomes in Healthy Singleton Pregnancies: Multicenter Italian GIFt Study / G.M. Anelli, F. Parisi, L. Sarno, O. Fornaciari, A. Carlea, C. Coco, M. Della Porta, N. Mollo, P.M. Villa, M. Guida, R. Cazzola, E. Troiano, M. Pasotti, G. Volpi, L. Vetrani, M. Maione, I. Cetin. - In: NUTRIENTS. - ISSN 2072-6643. - 14:17(2022), pp. 3631.1-3631.15. [10.3390/nu14173631]

Associations between Maternal Dietary Patterns, Biomarkers and Delivery Outcomes in Healthy Singleton Pregnancies: Multicenter Italian GIFt Study

G.M. Anelli
Primo
;
L. Sarno;O. Fornaciari;C. Coco;M. Della Porta;P.M. Villa;R. Cazzola;E. Troiano;I. Cetin
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Background: Maternal nutrition represents a critical risk factor for adverse health outcomes in both mother and offspring. We aimed to investigate associations between maternal nutritional habits, biomarker status, and pregnancy outcome among Italian healthy normal-weight pregnancies. Methods: Multicenter prospective cohort study recruiting Italian healthy normal-weight women with singleton spontaneous pregnancies at 20 ± 2 weeks (T1) in Milan and Naples. All patients underwent nutritional evaluations by our collecting a 7-day weighed dietary record at 25 ± 1 weeks (T2) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire at 29 ± 2 weeks (T3). Maternal venous blood samples were collected at T3 to assess nutritional, inflammatory and oxidative biomarker concentrations (RBCs folate, vitamin D, hepcidin, total antioxidant capacity). Pregnancy outcomes were collected at delivery (T4). General linear models adjusted for confounding factors were estimated to investigate associations between maternal dietary pattern adherence, nutrient intakes, biomarker concentrations and delivery outcomes. Results: 219 healthy normal-weight pregnant women were enrolled. Vitamin D and RBCs folate concentrations, as well as micronutrient intakes, were consistently below the recommended range. In a multi-adjusted model, maternal adherence to the most prevalent ‘high meat, animal fats, grains’ dietary pattern was positively associated with hepcidin concentrations and negatively associated with gestational age at delivery in pregnancies carrying female fetuses. Hepcidin plasma levels were further negatively associated to placental weight, whereas vitamin D concentrations were positively associated to neonatal weight. Conclusions: A high adherence to an unbalanced ‘high meat, animal fats, grains’ pattern was detected among Italian normal-weight low-risk pregnancies, further associated with maternal pro-inflammatory status and gestational age at delivery. This evidence underlines the need for a dedicated nutritional counseling even among low-risk pregnancies.
GIFt study; hepcidin; maternal dietary patterns; maternal nutrition; RBCs folate; vitamin D; Biomarkers; Female; Folic Acid; Humans; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Prospective Studies; Vitamin D; Vitamins; Hepcidins; Placenta
Settore MED/40 - Ginecologia e Ostetricia
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
Settore MED/49 - Scienze Tecniche Dietetiche Applicate
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/939406
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