Background According to the 2018 NIA-AA research framework, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not defined by the clinical consequences of the disease, but by its underlying pathology, measured by biomarkers. Evidence of both amyloid-beta (A beta) and phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) deposition-assessed interchangeably with amyloid-positron emission tomography (PET) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis-is needed to diagnose AD in a living person. Our aim was to test the new NIA-AA research framework in a large cohort of cognitively impaired patients to evaluate correspondence between the clinical syndromes and the underlying pathologic process testified by biomarkers. Methods We retrospectively analysed 628 subjects referred to our centre in suspicion of dementia, who underwent CSF analysis, together with neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging, and were diagnosed with different neurodegenerative dementias according to current criteria, or as cognitively unimpaired. Subjects were classified considering CSF biomarkers, and the prevalence of normal, AD-continuum and non-AD profiles in each clinical syndrome was calculated. The positivity threshold of each CSF biomarker was first assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using A beta-positive/negative status as determined by amyloid-PET visual reads. The agreement between CSF and amyloid-PET data was also evaluated. Results Among patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD, 94.1% were in the AD-continuum, whereas 5.5% were classified as non-AD and 0.4% were normal. The AD-continuum profile was found also in 26.2% of frontotemporal dementia, 48.6% of Lewy body dementia, 25% of atypical parkinsonism and 44.7% of vascular dementia. Biomarkers' profile did not differ in amnestic and not amnestic mild cognitive impairment. CSF A beta levels and amyloid-PET tracer binding negatively correlated, and the concordance between the two A beta biomarkers was 89%. Conclusions The examination of the 2018 NIA-AA research framework in our clinical setting revealed a good, but incomplete, correspondence between the clinical syndromes and the underlying pathologic process measured by CSF biomarkers. The AD-continuum profile resulted to be a sensitive, but non-specific biomarker with regard to the clinical AD diagnosis. CSF and PET A beta biomarkers were found to be not perfectly interchangeable to quantify the A beta burden, possibly because they measure different aspects of AD pathology.

Testing the 2018 NIA-AA research framework in a retrospective large cohort of patients with cognitive impairment: From biological biomarkers to clinical syndromes / T. Carandini, ARIGHI ANDREA, L. Sacchi, FUMAGALLI GIORGIO GIULIO, PIETROBONI ANNA MARGHERITA, L. Ghezzi, COLOMBI ANNALISA, SCARIONI MARTA, C. Fenoglio, DE RIZ MILENA ALESSANDRA, G. Marotta, E. Scarpini, GALIMBERTI DANIELA. - In: ALZHEIMER'S RESEARCH & THERAPY. - ISSN 1758-9193. - 11:1(2019 Oct 15).

Testing the 2018 NIA-AA research framework in a retrospective large cohort of patients with cognitive impairment: From biological biomarkers to clinical syndromes

T. Carandini
Primo
;
ARIGHI ANDREA
Secondo
;
FUMAGALLI GIORGIO GIULIO;PIETROBONI ANNA MARGHERITA;L. Ghezzi;COLOMBI ANNALISA;SCARIONI MARTA;C. Fenoglio;DE RIZ MILENA ALESSANDRA;E. Scarpini
Penultimo
;
GALIMBERTI DANIELA
Ultimo
2019-10-15

Abstract

Background According to the 2018 NIA-AA research framework, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not defined by the clinical consequences of the disease, but by its underlying pathology, measured by biomarkers. Evidence of both amyloid-beta (A beta) and phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) deposition-assessed interchangeably with amyloid-positron emission tomography (PET) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis-is needed to diagnose AD in a living person. Our aim was to test the new NIA-AA research framework in a large cohort of cognitively impaired patients to evaluate correspondence between the clinical syndromes and the underlying pathologic process testified by biomarkers. Methods We retrospectively analysed 628 subjects referred to our centre in suspicion of dementia, who underwent CSF analysis, together with neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging, and were diagnosed with different neurodegenerative dementias according to current criteria, or as cognitively unimpaired. Subjects were classified considering CSF biomarkers, and the prevalence of normal, AD-continuum and non-AD profiles in each clinical syndrome was calculated. The positivity threshold of each CSF biomarker was first assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using A beta-positive/negative status as determined by amyloid-PET visual reads. The agreement between CSF and amyloid-PET data was also evaluated. Results Among patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD, 94.1% were in the AD-continuum, whereas 5.5% were classified as non-AD and 0.4% were normal. The AD-continuum profile was found also in 26.2% of frontotemporal dementia, 48.6% of Lewy body dementia, 25% of atypical parkinsonism and 44.7% of vascular dementia. Biomarkers' profile did not differ in amnestic and not amnestic mild cognitive impairment. CSF A beta levels and amyloid-PET tracer binding negatively correlated, and the concordance between the two A beta biomarkers was 89%. Conclusions The examination of the 2018 NIA-AA research framework in our clinical setting revealed a good, but incomplete, correspondence between the clinical syndromes and the underlying pathologic process measured by CSF biomarkers. The AD-continuum profile resulted to be a sensitive, but non-specific biomarker with regard to the clinical AD diagnosis. CSF and PET A beta biomarkers were found to be not perfectly interchangeable to quantify the A beta burden, possibly because they measure different aspects of AD pathology.
Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; Clinical neurology; CSF; Dementia; PET
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
Settore MED/26 - Neurologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/693334
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