In this work FT-NIR Spectroscopy was used to evaluate the Optimal Cooking Time of different types of rice (milled, parboiled and quick-cooking rice). Conventional analytical approaches, such as the determination of the gelatinisation time using ISO method, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as reference methods. Images of rice kernels were digitalised by a plane scanner, under standardised lighting conditions. A fully automatic procedure was developed using Image Analysis software. Measurements were collected after different cooking times, for each type of rice. During the cooking process, kernel volume increases were evaluated, and fitted by a mathematical model. The minimum of the first derivative was measured, corresponding to the time when the gelatinisation process was completed (OCT). Spectral data were collected in reflectance mode NIR spectrometer using Fourier transformation (FT-NIR). Spectra were pre-treated using Standard Normate Variate (SNV) algorithm and calculation of a second derivative. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied as an exploratory chemometric technique to each type of rice at different cooking times and the cooking kinetic was fitted by an “equilibrium concentration” equation. Therefore, the kinetics of the values of the second derivative at some wavenumbers could be associated to the main phenomena occurred during cooking, such as gelatinisation of starch, water diffusion in ungelatinised and gelatinised matrix and the loss of texture in overcooking conditions. The results obtained confirmed the feasibility of NIR method to draw a rice profile during cooking and to evaluate rapidly the Optimal Cooking Time.
|Titolo:||Cooking kinetics of rice samples as measured by FT-NIR spectroscopy|
|Autori interni:||RIVA, MARCO (Secondo)|
SINELLI, NICOLETTA (Primo)
PAGANI, MARIA AMBROGINA
ZARDI, MARTA (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||FT-NIR spectroscopy, image analysis, cooking kinetics, rice|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/15 - Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Tipologia:||Book Part (author)|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03 - Contributo in volume|
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