Silage has a substantial role in ruminant nutrition. Silages as a source of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins merit attention. Fungal growth and mycotoxin production before and during storage are a well-known phenomenon, resulting in reduced nutritional value and a possible risk factor for animal health. Mycotoxin co-contamination seems to be unavoidable under current agricultural and silage-making practices. Multi-mycotoxin contamination in silages is of particular concern due to the potential additive or synergistic effects on animals. In regard to managing the challenge of mycotoxins in silages, there are many factors with pre- and post-harvest origins to take into account. Pre-harvest events are predominantly dictated by environmental factors, whereas post-harvest events can be largely controlled by the farmer. An effective mycotoxin management and control programme should be integrated and personalised to each farm at an integrative level throughout the silage production chain. Growing crops in the field, silage making practices, and the feed out phase must be considered. Economical and straightforward silage testing is critical to reach a quick and sufficiently accurate diagnosis of silage quality, which allows for “in field decision-making” with regard to the rapid diagnosis of the quality of given forage for its safe use as animal feed. Regular sampling and testing of silage allow picking up any variations in mycotoxin contamination. The use of rapid methods in the field represents future challenges. Moreover, a proper nutritional intervention needs to be considered to manage mycotoxin-contaminated silages. At farm level, animals are more often exposed to moderate amounts of several mycotoxins rather than to high levels of a single mycotoxin, resulting more frequently in non-specific digestive and health status impairment. Effective dietary strategies to promote rumen health, coupled with the administration of effective and broad-spectrum mycotoxin detoxifiers, are essential to minimize the negative impact of mycotoxins.
Mycotoxins in silage: checkpoints for effective management and control / V. Dell'Orto, G. Baldi, F. Cheli. - In: WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. - ISSN 1875-0710. - 8:5(2015), pp. 603-617.
|Titolo:||Mycotoxins in silage: checkpoints for effective management and control|
DELL'ORTO, VITTORIO (Primo)
BALDI, GIANLUCA (Secondo)
CHELI, FEDERICA (Ultimo) (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||mycotoxicosis; beef cattle; veal calves; silage sampling; mycotoxin analysis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2014.1866|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|