States of unital Abelian lattice-groups (normalised positive group homomorphisms to R) provide an abstraction of expected-value operators. A well-known theorem due to Mundici asserts that the category of unital lattice-groups (with unit-preserving lattice-group homomorphisms as morphisms) is equivalent to the algebraic category of MV-algebras, and their homomorphisms. Through this equivalence, states of lattice-groups correspond to certain [0,1]-valued functionals on MV-algebras, which are also known as states. In this paper we allow states to take values in any unital lattice-group (or in any MV-algebra) rather than just in R (or just in [0,1], respectively). We introduce a two-sorted algebraic theory whose models are precisely states of MV-algebras. We extend Mundici's equivalence to one between the category of MV-algebras with states as morphisms, and the category of unital Abelian lattice-groups with, again, states as morphisms. Thus, the models of our two-sorted theory may also be regarded as states between unital Abelian lattice-groups. As our first main result, we derive the existence of the universal state of any MV-algebra from the existence of free algebras in multi-sorted algebraic categories. The significance of the universal state of a given algebra is that it provides the most general expected-value operator on that algebra—a construct that is not available if one insists that states be real-valued. In the remaining part of the paper, we seek concrete representations of such universal states. We begin by clarifying the relationship of universal states with the theory of affine representations: the universal state A→B of the MV-algebra A coincides with a certain modification of Choquet's affine representation (of the lattice-group corresponding to A) if, and only if, B is semisimple. Locally finite MV-algebras are semisimple, and Boolean algebras are instances of locally finite MV-algebras. Our second main result is then that the universal state of any locally finite MV-algebra has semisimple codomain, and can thus be described through our adaptation of Choquet's affine representation.

The two-sorted algebraic theory of states, and the universal states of MV-algebras / T. Kroupa, V. Marra. - In: JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED ALGEBRA. - ISSN 0022-4049. - 225:12(2021), pp. 106771.1-106771.21. [10.1016/j.jpaa.2021.106771]

The two-sorted algebraic theory of states, and the universal states of MV-algebras

V. Marra
2021

Abstract

States of unital Abelian lattice-groups (normalised positive group homomorphisms to R) provide an abstraction of expected-value operators. A well-known theorem due to Mundici asserts that the category of unital lattice-groups (with unit-preserving lattice-group homomorphisms as morphisms) is equivalent to the algebraic category of MV-algebras, and their homomorphisms. Through this equivalence, states of lattice-groups correspond to certain [0,1]-valued functionals on MV-algebras, which are also known as states. In this paper we allow states to take values in any unital lattice-group (or in any MV-algebra) rather than just in R (or just in [0,1], respectively). We introduce a two-sorted algebraic theory whose models are precisely states of MV-algebras. We extend Mundici's equivalence to one between the category of MV-algebras with states as morphisms, and the category of unital Abelian lattice-groups with, again, states as morphisms. Thus, the models of our two-sorted theory may also be regarded as states between unital Abelian lattice-groups. As our first main result, we derive the existence of the universal state of any MV-algebra from the existence of free algebras in multi-sorted algebraic categories. The significance of the universal state of a given algebra is that it provides the most general expected-value operator on that algebra—a construct that is not available if one insists that states be real-valued. In the remaining part of the paper, we seek concrete representations of such universal states. We begin by clarifying the relationship of universal states with the theory of affine representations: the universal state A→B of the MV-algebra A coincides with a certain modification of Choquet's affine representation (of the lattice-group corresponding to A) if, and only if, B is semisimple. Locally finite MV-algebras are semisimple, and Boolean algebras are instances of locally finite MV-algebras. Our second main result is then that the universal state of any locally finite MV-algebra has semisimple codomain, and can thus be described through our adaptation of Choquet's affine representation.
Affine representation; Free object; Lattice-ordered Abelian group; Multi-sorted algebra; MV-algebra; State
Settore MAT/02 - Algebra
Settore MAT/06 - Probabilita' e Statistica Matematica
Settore MAT/01 - Logica Matematica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/865040
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