In the context of functional determinants of cardiovascular risk, a simple excess in body weight, as indexed by a rise in body mass index (BMI), plays a significant, well-recognized causal role. Conversely, BMI reductions toward normal result in an improvement of risk. Obesity is associated with impaired cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR), through either vagal or sympathetic mechanisms, which could favor the tendency to foster hypertension. Here we study the changing properties of the relationship between increasing grades of BMI and CAR in a population of 756 healthy subjects (age 35.9 _ 12.41 years, 37.4% males, 21.6% overweight, and 16% obese). Evaluation of CAR is based on autoregressive spectral analysis of short-term RR interval and systolic arterial pressure variability, from which a multitude of indices, treated overall as autonomic nervous system (ANS) proxies, is derived. Inspection of the study hypothesis that elevated BMI conditions associate significantly with alterations of CAR, independently of age and gender, is carried out using a mix of statistical transformations, exploratory factor analysis, non-parametric testing procedures, and graphical tools particularly well suited to address alterations of CAR as a disturbed process. In particular, to remove the effects of the inter-individual variability, deriving from components like age, gender or ethnicity, and to reduce the number of ANS proxies, we set up six age-and-gender-adjusted CAR indicators, corresponding to four ANS latent domains (oscillatory, amplitude, pressure, and pulse), cardiac baroreflex regulation, and autonomic nervous system index (ANSI). An impairment of the CAR indicators is overall evident in the overweight group and more marked in the obesity group. Empirical evidence is strong (9/9 concordant non-parametric test results) for pressure domain, almost strong (8/9) for ANSI, medium-strong for baroreflex (6/9) and pulse (7/9), weak for oscillatory (2/9) and amplitude (1/9) domains. In addition, the distribution of the CAR indicators corresponding to pressure, pulse, baroreflex, and ANSI is skewed toward the unfavorable abscissa extremity, particularly in the obese group. The significant association of increased BMI with progressive impairments of CAR regarding specifically the pressure domain and the overall ANS performance might underscore the strong hypertensive tendency observed in obesity.
Altered Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Overweight and Obese Subjects : The Role of Age-and-Gender-Adjusted Statistical Indicators of Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Baroreflex / N. Solaro, M. Pagani, D. Lucini. - In: FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-042X. - 11(2021 Jan 28), pp. 567312.1-567312.17.
|Titolo:||Altered Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Overweight and Obese Subjects : The Role of Age-and-Gender-Adjusted Statistical Indicators of Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Baroreflex|
PAGANI, MASSIMO (Secondo)
LUCINI, DANIELA (Ultimo) (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||sympathetic-parasympathetic balance; percentile rank transformation; life style, exploratory factor analysis; cardiovascular risk; non-parametric statistical inference|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore M-EDF/01 - Metodi e Didattiche delle Attivita' Motorie|
Settore SECS-S/01 - Statistica
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
|Data di pubblicazione:||28-gen-2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.567312|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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