Cover's function counting theorem is a milestone in the theory of artificial neural networks. It provides an answer to the fundamental question of determining how many binary assignments (dichotomies) of p points in n dimensions can be linearly realized. Regrettably, it has proved hard to extend the same approach to more advanced problems than the classification of points. In particular, an emerging necessity is to find methods to deal with geometrically structured data, and specifically with non-point-like patterns. A prominent case is that of invariant recognition, whereby identification of a stimulus is insensitive to irrelevant transformations on the inputs (such as rotations or changes in perspective in an image). An object is thus represented by an extended perceptual manifold, consisting of inputs that are classified similarly. Here, we develop a function counting theory for structured data of this kind, by extending Cover's combinatorial technique, and we derive analytical expressions for the average number of dichotomies of generically correlated sets of patterns. As an application, we obtain a closed formula for the capacity of a binary classifier trained to distinguish general polytopes of any dimension. These results extend our theoretical understanding of the role of data structure in machine learning, and provide useful quantitative tools for the analysis of generalization, feature extraction, and invariant object recognition by neural networks.

Counting the learnable functions of geometrically structured data / P. Rotondo, M.C. Lagomarsino, M. Gherardi. - In: PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH. - ISSN 2643-1564. - 2:2(2020), pp. 023169.1-023169.9. [10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.023169]

Counting the learnable functions of geometrically structured data

Rotondo, Pietro;Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino;Gherardi, Marco
2020

Abstract

Cover's function counting theorem is a milestone in the theory of artificial neural networks. It provides an answer to the fundamental question of determining how many binary assignments (dichotomies) of p points in n dimensions can be linearly realized. Regrettably, it has proved hard to extend the same approach to more advanced problems than the classification of points. In particular, an emerging necessity is to find methods to deal with geometrically structured data, and specifically with non-point-like patterns. A prominent case is that of invariant recognition, whereby identification of a stimulus is insensitive to irrelevant transformations on the inputs (such as rotations or changes in perspective in an image). An object is thus represented by an extended perceptual manifold, consisting of inputs that are classified similarly. Here, we develop a function counting theory for structured data of this kind, by extending Cover's combinatorial technique, and we derive analytical expressions for the average number of dichotomies of generically correlated sets of patterns. As an application, we obtain a closed formula for the capacity of a binary classifier trained to distinguish general polytopes of any dimension. These results extend our theoretical understanding of the role of data structure in machine learning, and provide useful quantitative tools for the analysis of generalization, feature extraction, and invariant object recognition by neural networks.
Settore FIS/02 - Fisica Teorica, Modelli e Metodi Matematici
Settore INF/01 - Informatica
PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/737831
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