The ketogenic diet (KD) is the first line intervention for glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and is recommended for refractory epilepsy. It is a normo-caloric, high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet aimed at switching the brain metabolism from glucose dependence to the utilization of ketone bodies. Several variants of KD are currently available. Depending on the variant, KDs require the almost total exclusion, or a limited consumption of carbohydrates. Thus, there is total avoidance, or a limited consumption of cereal-based foods, and a reduction in fruit and vegetable intake. KDs, especially the more restrictive variants, are characterized by low variability, palatability, and tolerability, as well as by side-effects, like gastrointestinal disorders, nephrolithiasis, growth retardation, hyperlipidemia, and mineral and vitamin deficiency. In recent years, in an effort to improve the quality of life of patients on KDs, food companies have started to develop, and commercialize, several food products specific for such patients. This review summarizes the foods themselves, including sweeteners, and food products currently available for the ketogenic dietary treatment of neurological diseases. It describes the nutritional characteristics and gives indications for the use of the different products, taking into account their metabolic and health effects.

Food and Food Products on the Italian Market for Ketogenic Dietary Treatment of Neurological Diseases / A. Leone, R. De Amicis, C. Lessa, A. Tagliabue, C. Trentani, C. Ferraris, A. Battezzati, P. Veggiotti, A. Foppiani, S. Ravella, S. Bertoli. - In: NUTRIENTS. - ISSN 2072-6643. - 11:5(2019 May 17), pp. 1104.1-1104.21.

Food and Food Products on the Italian Market for Ketogenic Dietary Treatment of Neurological Diseases

A. Leone
Primo
;
R. De Amicis
Secondo
;
C. Lessa;A. Battezzati;P. Veggiotti;A. Foppiani;S. Bertoli
Ultimo
2019

Abstract

The ketogenic diet (KD) is the first line intervention for glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and is recommended for refractory epilepsy. It is a normo-caloric, high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet aimed at switching the brain metabolism from glucose dependence to the utilization of ketone bodies. Several variants of KD are currently available. Depending on the variant, KDs require the almost total exclusion, or a limited consumption of carbohydrates. Thus, there is total avoidance, or a limited consumption of cereal-based foods, and a reduction in fruit and vegetable intake. KDs, especially the more restrictive variants, are characterized by low variability, palatability, and tolerability, as well as by side-effects, like gastrointestinal disorders, nephrolithiasis, growth retardation, hyperlipidemia, and mineral and vitamin deficiency. In recent years, in an effort to improve the quality of life of patients on KDs, food companies have started to develop, and commercialize, several food products specific for such patients. This review summarizes the foods themselves, including sweeteners, and food products currently available for the ketogenic dietary treatment of neurological diseases. It describes the nutritional characteristics and gives indications for the use of the different products, taking into account their metabolic and health effects.
ketogenic diet; food; epilepsy; glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome; pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency; children; adult
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Settore MED/49 - Scienze Tecniche Dietetiche Applicate
Settore MED/39 - Neuropsichiatria Infantile
Centro Internazionale per lo Studio della Composizione Corporea ICANS
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2019. Leone et al. - Ketogenic products.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 442.28 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
442.28 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/644829
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 9
  • Scopus 11
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact