Anaerobic digestion produces a biologically stable and high-value fertilizer product, the digestate, which can be used as an alternative to mineral fertilizers on crops. However, misuse of digestate can lead to annoyance for the public (odours) and to environmental problems such as nitrate leaching and ammonia emissions into the air. Full field experimental data are needed to support the use of digestate in agriculture, promoting its correct management. In this work, short-term experiments were performed to substitute mineral N fertilizers (urea) with digestate and products derived from it to the crop silage maize. Digestate and the liquid fraction of digestate were applied to soil at pre-sowing and as topdressing fertilizers in comparison with urea, both by surface application and subsurface injection during the cropping seasons 2012 and 2013. After each fertilizer application, both odours and ammonia emissions were measured, giving data about digestate and derived products' impacts.The AD products could substitute for urea without reducing crop yields, apart from the surface application of AD-derived fertilizers. Digestate and derived products, because of high biological stability acquired during the AD, had greatly reduced olfactometry impact, above all when they were injected into soils (82-88% less odours than the untreated biomass, i.e. cattle slurry). Ammonia emission data indicated, as expected, that the correct use of digestate and derived products required their injection into the soil avoiding, ammonia volatilization into the air and preserving fertilizer value. Sub-surface injection allowed ammonia emissions to be reduced by 69% and 77% compared with surface application during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns.
Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer : agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts / C. Riva, V. Orzi, M. Carozzi, M. Acutis, G. Boccasile, S. Lonati, F. Tambone, G. D'Imporzano, F. Adani. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 547(2016), pp. 206-214.
|Titolo:||Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer : agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts|
ADANI, FABRIZIO (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Ammonia volatilization; Digestate; Liquid fraction of digestate; Nitrogen fertilizers; Odour impacts; Agriculture; Air Pollutants; Ammonia; Crops, Agricultural; Nitrogen; Odorants; Fertilizers; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Chemistry; Waste Management and Disposal; Pollution|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/13 - Chimica Agraria|
|Progetto:||Messa a punto di best practice a ridotta emissione in amosfera per la gestione e l'utilizzo agronomico di reflui zootecnici|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.156|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|