In recent years, a substantial body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that purine and pyrimidine synthesis and metabolism play major roles in controlling embryonic and fetal development and organogenesis. Dynamic and time-dependent changes in the expression of purine metabolizing enzymes (such as ectonucleotidases and adenosine deaminase) represent a key checkpoint for the correct sequential generation of the different signaling molecules, that in turn activate their specific membrane receptors. In neurodevelopment, Ca2+ release from radial glia mediated by P2Y1 purinergic receptors is fundamental to allow neuroblast migration along radial glia processes, and their correct positioning in the different layers of the developing neocortex. Moreover, ATP is involved in the development of synaptic transmission and contributes to the establishment of functional neuronal networks in the developing brain. Additionally, several purinergic receptors (spanning from adenosine to P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes) are differentially expressed by neural stem cells, depending on their maturation stage, and their activation tightly regulates cell proliferation and differentiation to either neurons or glial cells, as well as their correct colonization of the developing telencephalon. The purinergic control of neurodevelopment is not limited to prenatal life, but is maintained in postnatal life, when it plays fundamental roles in controlling oligodendrocyte maturation from precursors and their terminal differentiation to fully myelinating cells. Based on the above-mentioned and other literature evidence, it is now increasingly clear that any defect altering the tight regulation of purinergic transmission and of purine and pyrimidine metabolism during pre- and post-natal brain development may translate into functional deficits, which could be at the basis of severe pathologies characterized by mental retardation or other disturbances. This can occur either at the level of the recruitment and/or signaling of specific nucleotide or nucleoside receptors or through genetic alterations in key steps of the purine salvage pathway. In this review, we have provided a critical analysis of what is currently known on the pathophysiological role of purines and pyrimidines during brain development with the aim of unveiling new future strategies for pharmacological intervention in different neurodevelopmental disorders.
Pathophysiological Role of Purines and Pyrimidines in Neurodevelopment: Unveiling New Pharmacological Approaches to Congenital Brain Diseases / M. Fumagalli, D. Lecca, M.P. Abbracchio, S. Ceruti. - In: FRONTIERS IN PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 1663-9812. - 8:DEC(2017 Dec 19).
|Titolo:||Pathophysiological Role of Purines and Pyrimidines in Neurodevelopment: Unveiling New Pharmacological Approaches to Congenital Brain Diseases|
FUMAGALLI, MARTA (Primo)
LECCA, DAVIDE (Secondo)
ABBRACCHIO, MARIA PIA (Penultimo)
CERUTI, STEFANIA MARIA (Ultimo) (Corresponding)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Progetto:||PIANO DI SOSTEGNO ALLA RICERCA 2015-2017 - LINEA 2 "DOTAZIONE ANNUALE PER ATTIVITA' ISTITUZIONALE" (ANNO 2016)|
|Data di pubblicazione:||19-dic-2017|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00941|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|