The antioxidant content and activity of commercial tomato products differing in variety and processing were studied. Two procedures for extracting hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, namely, two-step 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and 7.4) extraction and tetrahydrofuran extraction followed by petroleum ether fractionation, were developed. Carotenoids (lycopene, beta-carotene, and lutein) and ascorbic acid were analyzed by HPLC with spectrophotometric and electrochemical detectors, respectively. Total phenolics were determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was studied by the following three model systems: (a) the xanthine oxidase (XOD)/xanthine system, which generates superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide; (b) the myeloperoxidase (MPO)/NaCl/H2O2 system, which produces hypochloric acid; and (c) the linoleic acid/CuSO4 system, which promotes lipid peroxidation. Results showed that the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions of all tomato products were able to affect model reactions, whatever reactive oxygen species and catalysts were used to drive oxidation. In the XOD/xanthine system both the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions displayed an inhibitory activity. The hydrophilic fractions were more effective (I50 ranging from 680 to 3200 íg, dry weight) than the lipophilic fractions (I50 ranging from 4000 to 7750 microg, dry weight). In the MPO/NaCl/H2O2 system the hydrophilic fractions inhibited oxidation (I50 ranging from 2300 to 2900 microg, dry weight), whereas the lipophilic fractions had a lower inhibitory effect at the same concentration. Conversely, in the copper-catalyzed lipid peroxidation only the lipophilic fractions were effective (I50 ranging from 1030 to 2100 microg, dry weight), whereas the hydrophilic fractions had a pro-oxidant effect in the same concentration range. The extent of inhibition varied according to the tomato sample in the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generating system and in lipid peroxidation, but was substantially the same in the HClO generating system. Fresh tomato varieties differed considerably in the antioxidant activities of their hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Processed tomatoes showed a significantly lower antioxidant activity than fresh tomatoes in their hydrophilic fractions but had a high antioxidant activity in their lipophilic fractions. Because the oxidative reactions produced by the above-mentioned model systems are also involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, the antioxidant activity of tomato fractions might be related to their in vivo activity. Hence, these measurements may be used for optimizing tomato technologies.

Antioxidant activity of tomato products as studied by model reactions using xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and copper-induced lipid peroxidation / V. Lavelli, C. Peri, A. Rizzolo. - In: JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0021-8561. - 48:5(2000), pp. 1442-1448.

Antioxidant activity of tomato products as studied by model reactions using xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and copper-induced lipid peroxidation

V. Lavelli;C. Peri;
2000

Abstract

The antioxidant content and activity of commercial tomato products differing in variety and processing were studied. Two procedures for extracting hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, namely, two-step 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and 7.4) extraction and tetrahydrofuran extraction followed by petroleum ether fractionation, were developed. Carotenoids (lycopene, beta-carotene, and lutein) and ascorbic acid were analyzed by HPLC with spectrophotometric and electrochemical detectors, respectively. Total phenolics were determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was studied by the following three model systems: (a) the xanthine oxidase (XOD)/xanthine system, which generates superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide; (b) the myeloperoxidase (MPO)/NaCl/H2O2 system, which produces hypochloric acid; and (c) the linoleic acid/CuSO4 system, which promotes lipid peroxidation. Results showed that the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions of all tomato products were able to affect model reactions, whatever reactive oxygen species and catalysts were used to drive oxidation. In the XOD/xanthine system both the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions displayed an inhibitory activity. The hydrophilic fractions were more effective (I50 ranging from 680 to 3200 íg, dry weight) than the lipophilic fractions (I50 ranging from 4000 to 7750 microg, dry weight). In the MPO/NaCl/H2O2 system the hydrophilic fractions inhibited oxidation (I50 ranging from 2300 to 2900 microg, dry weight), whereas the lipophilic fractions had a lower inhibitory effect at the same concentration. Conversely, in the copper-catalyzed lipid peroxidation only the lipophilic fractions were effective (I50 ranging from 1030 to 2100 microg, dry weight), whereas the hydrophilic fractions had a pro-oxidant effect in the same concentration range. The extent of inhibition varied according to the tomato sample in the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generating system and in lipid peroxidation, but was substantially the same in the HClO generating system. Fresh tomato varieties differed considerably in the antioxidant activities of their hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Processed tomatoes showed a significantly lower antioxidant activity than fresh tomatoes in their hydrophilic fractions but had a high antioxidant activity in their lipophilic fractions. Because the oxidative reactions produced by the above-mentioned model systems are also involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, the antioxidant activity of tomato fractions might be related to their in vivo activity. Hence, these measurements may be used for optimizing tomato technologies.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) ; antioxidant activity ; xanthine oxidase ; myeloperoxidase ; copper-induced lipid peroxidation
Settore AGR/15 - Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/174931
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