Pancreatic β-cells, by secreting insulin, play a key role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and their dysfunction is the basis of diabetes development. The metabolic milieu created by high blood glucose and lipids is known to play a role in this process. In the last decades, cholesterol has attracted significant attention, not only because it critically controls β-cell function but also because it is the target of lipid-lowering therapies proposed for preventing the cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Despite the remarkable progress, understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for cholesterol-mediated β-cell function remains an open and attractive area of investigation. Studies indicate that β-cells not only regulate the total cholesterol level but also its redistribution within organelles, a process mediated by vesicular and non-vesicular transport. The aim of this review is to summarize the most current view of how cholesterol homeostasis is maintained in pancreatic β-cells and to provide new insights on the mechanisms by which cholesterol is dynamically distributed among organelles to preserve their functionality. While cholesterol may affect virtually any activity of the β-cell, the intent of this review is to focus on early steps of insulin synthesis and secretion, an area still largely unexplored.

Cholesterol Redistribution in Pancreatic β-Cells: A Flexible Path to Regulate Insulin Secretion / A. Galli, A. Arunagiri, N. Dule, M. Castagna, P. Marciani, C. Perego. - In: BIOMOLECULES. - ISSN 2218-273X. - 13:2(2023 Jan), pp. 224.1-224.22. [10.3390/biom13020224]

Cholesterol Redistribution in Pancreatic β-Cells: A Flexible Path to Regulate Insulin Secretion

A. Galli
Primo
;
N. Dule;M. Castagna;P. Marciani
Penultimo
;
C. Perego
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Pancreatic β-cells, by secreting insulin, play a key role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and their dysfunction is the basis of diabetes development. The metabolic milieu created by high blood glucose and lipids is known to play a role in this process. In the last decades, cholesterol has attracted significant attention, not only because it critically controls β-cell function but also because it is the target of lipid-lowering therapies proposed for preventing the cardiovascular complications in diabetes. Despite the remarkable progress, understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for cholesterol-mediated β-cell function remains an open and attractive area of investigation. Studies indicate that β-cells not only regulate the total cholesterol level but also its redistribution within organelles, a process mediated by vesicular and non-vesicular transport. The aim of this review is to summarize the most current view of how cholesterol homeostasis is maintained in pancreatic β-cells and to provide new insights on the mechanisms by which cholesterol is dynamically distributed among organelles to preserve their functionality. While cholesterol may affect virtually any activity of the β-cell, the intent of this review is to focus on early steps of insulin synthesis and secretion, an area still largely unexplored.
insulin biosynthesis and secretion; cholesterol homeostasis; cholesterol trafficking; β-cell dysfunction; type 2 diabetes
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
gen-2023
gen-2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/952421
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