Long-COVID is a clinical condition in which patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 usually report a wide range of physical and cognitive symptoms from 3 to 6 months after the infection recovery. The aim of the current study was to assess the link between self-reported long-COVID symptoms and reaction times (RTs) in a self-administered Visual Detection Task (VDT) in order to identify the predictor symptoms of the slowing in reaction times to determine attention impairment. In total, 362 participants (age (mean ± S.D.: 38.56 ± 13.14); sex (female–male: 73.76–26.24%)) responded to a web-based self-report questionnaire consisting of four sections: demographics, disease-related characteristics, and medical history questions. The final section consisted of a 23 item 5-point Likert- scale questionnaire related to long-term COVID-19 symptoms. After completing the questionnaire, subjects performed a VDT on a tablet screen to assess reaction times (RTs). An exploratory factorial analysis (EFA) was performed on the 23 long-COVID symptom questions, identifying 4 factors (cognition, behavior, physical condition, presence of anosmia and/or ageusia). The most important predictors of RTs were cognition and physical factors. By dissecting the cognitive and physical factors, learning, visual impairment, and headache were the top predictors of subjects’ performance in the VDT. Long-COVID subjects showed higher RTs in the VDT after a considerable time post-disease, suggesting the presence of an attention deficit disorder. Attention impairment due to COVID-19 can be due to the presence of headaches, visual impairments, and the presence of cognitive problems related to the difficulty in learning new activities. The link between the slowing of reaction times and physical and cognitive symptoms post-COVID-19 suggests that attention deficit disorder is caused by a complex interaction between physical and cognitive symptoms. In addition, the study provides evidence that RTs in a VDT represent a reliable measure to detect the presence of long-COVID neurological sequelae.

Relationship between Reaction Times and Post-COVID-19 Symptoms Assessed by a Web-Based Visual Detection Task / N.V. Maiorana, E. Nicolò Aiello, B. Poletti, F. Carusi, A. De Sandi, M. Guidetti, R. Prandin, S. Marceglia, N. Ticozzi, V. Silani, A. Priori, R. Ferrucci. - In: HEALTHCARE. - ISSN 2227-9032. - 11:3(2023 Jan 17), pp. 284.1-284.12. [10.3390/healthcare11030284]

Relationship between Reaction Times and Post-COVID-19 Symptoms Assessed by a Web-Based Visual Detection Task

N.V. Maiorana
Primo
;
M. Guidetti;R. Prandin;N. Ticozzi;A. Priori
Penultimo
;
R. Ferrucci
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Long-COVID is a clinical condition in which patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 usually report a wide range of physical and cognitive symptoms from 3 to 6 months after the infection recovery. The aim of the current study was to assess the link between self-reported long-COVID symptoms and reaction times (RTs) in a self-administered Visual Detection Task (VDT) in order to identify the predictor symptoms of the slowing in reaction times to determine attention impairment. In total, 362 participants (age (mean ± S.D.: 38.56 ± 13.14); sex (female–male: 73.76–26.24%)) responded to a web-based self-report questionnaire consisting of four sections: demographics, disease-related characteristics, and medical history questions. The final section consisted of a 23 item 5-point Likert- scale questionnaire related to long-term COVID-19 symptoms. After completing the questionnaire, subjects performed a VDT on a tablet screen to assess reaction times (RTs). An exploratory factorial analysis (EFA) was performed on the 23 long-COVID symptom questions, identifying 4 factors (cognition, behavior, physical condition, presence of anosmia and/or ageusia). The most important predictors of RTs were cognition and physical factors. By dissecting the cognitive and physical factors, learning, visual impairment, and headache were the top predictors of subjects’ performance in the VDT. Long-COVID subjects showed higher RTs in the VDT after a considerable time post-disease, suggesting the presence of an attention deficit disorder. Attention impairment due to COVID-19 can be due to the presence of headaches, visual impairments, and the presence of cognitive problems related to the difficulty in learning new activities. The link between the slowing of reaction times and physical and cognitive symptoms post-COVID-19 suggests that attention deficit disorder is caused by a complex interaction between physical and cognitive symptoms. In addition, the study provides evidence that RTs in a VDT represent a reliable measure to detect the presence of long-COVID neurological sequelae.
COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; neuropsychology; attention; post-COVID syndrome
Settore M-PSI/02 - Psicobiologia e Psicologia Fisiologica
Settore MED/26 - Neurologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/951819
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