The gut-brain axis (GBA) is a complex interactive network linking the gut to the brain. It involves the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal and the central nervous system, mediated by endocrinological, immunological, and neural signals. Perturbations of the GBA have been reported in many neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a possible role in disease pathogenesis, making it a potential therapeutic target. The gut microbiome is a pivotal component of the GBA, and alterations in its composition have been linked to GBA dysfunction and CNS inflammation and degeneration. The gut microbiome might influence the homeostasis of the central nervous system homeostasis through the modulation of the immune system and, more directly, the production of molecules and metabolites. Small clinical and preclinical trials, in which microbial composition was manipulated using dietary changes, fecal microbiome transplantation, and probiotic supplements, have provided promising outcomes. However, results are not always consistent, and large-scale randomized control trials are lacking. Here, we give an overview of how the gut microbiome influences the GBA and could contribute to disease pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases.

The Gut Microbiome-Brain Crosstalk in Neurodegenerative Diseases / L. Ghezzi, C. Cantoni, E. Rotondo, D. Galimberti. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - 10:7(2022), pp. 1486.1-1486.17. [10.3390/biomedicines10071486]

The Gut Microbiome-Brain Crosstalk in Neurodegenerative Diseases

L. Ghezzi
Primo
;
C. Cantoni
Secondo
;
E. Rotondo
Penultimo
;
D. Galimberti
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

The gut-brain axis (GBA) is a complex interactive network linking the gut to the brain. It involves the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal and the central nervous system, mediated by endocrinological, immunological, and neural signals. Perturbations of the GBA have been reported in many neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a possible role in disease pathogenesis, making it a potential therapeutic target. The gut microbiome is a pivotal component of the GBA, and alterations in its composition have been linked to GBA dysfunction and CNS inflammation and degeneration. The gut microbiome might influence the homeostasis of the central nervous system homeostasis through the modulation of the immune system and, more directly, the production of molecules and metabolites. Small clinical and preclinical trials, in which microbial composition was manipulated using dietary changes, fecal microbiome transplantation, and probiotic supplements, have provided promising outcomes. However, results are not always consistent, and large-scale randomized control trials are lacking. Here, we give an overview of how the gut microbiome influences the GBA and could contribute to disease pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases.
gut microbiome; gut–brain axis; neurodegenerative diseases
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/943673
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