A molecular mimicry between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human proteins supports the possibility that autoimmunity takes place during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) contributing to tissue damage. For example, anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been reported in COVID-19 as a result of such mimicry and thought to contribute to the immunothrombosis characteristic of the disease. Consistently, active immunization with the virus spike protein may elicit the production of cross-reactive autoantibodies, including aPL. We prospectively looked at the aPL production in healthcare workers vaccinated with RNA- (BNT162b2, n. 100) or adenovirus-based vaccines (ChAdOx1, n. 50). Anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I, anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM before and after vaccination were investigated. Anti-platelet factor 4 immunoglobulins were also investigated as autoantibodies associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Additional organ (anti-thyroid) and non-organ (anti-nuclear) autoantibodies and IgG against human proteome were tested as further post-vaccination autoimmunity markers. The antibodies were tested one or three months after the first injection of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2, respectively; a 12-month clinical follow-up was also performed. Vaccination occasionally induced low titers of aPL and other autoantibodies but did not affect the titer of pre-existing autoantibodies. No significant reactivities against a microarray of approximately 20,000 human proteins were found in a subgroup of ChAdOx1-vaccinees. Consistently, we did not record any clinical manifestation theoretically associated with an underlying autoimmune disorder. The data obtained after the vaccination (two doses for the RNA-based and one dose for the adenovirus-based vaccines), and the clinical follow-up are not supporting the occurrence of an early autoimmune response in this cohort of healthcare workers.

Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies and Coronavirus Disease 2019: Vaccination Does Not Trigger Early Autoantibody Production in Healthcare Workers / M.O. Borghi, M. Bombaci, C. Bodio, P.A. Lonati, A. Gobbini, M. Lorenzo, E. Torresani, A. Dubini, I. Bulgarelli, F. Solari, F. Pregnolato, A. Bandera, A. Gori, G. Parati, S. Abrignani, R. Grifantini, P.L. Meroni. - In: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-3224. - 13:(2022), pp. 930074.1-930074.8. [10.3389/fimmu.2022.930074]

Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies and Coronavirus Disease 2019: Vaccination Does Not Trigger Early Autoantibody Production in Healthcare Workers

M.O. Borghi;C. Bodio;P.A. Lonati;M. Lorenzo;I. Bulgarelli;F. Pregnolato;A. Bandera;A. Gori;S. Abrignani;P.L. Meroni
2022

Abstract

A molecular mimicry between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human proteins supports the possibility that autoimmunity takes place during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) contributing to tissue damage. For example, anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been reported in COVID-19 as a result of such mimicry and thought to contribute to the immunothrombosis characteristic of the disease. Consistently, active immunization with the virus spike protein may elicit the production of cross-reactive autoantibodies, including aPL. We prospectively looked at the aPL production in healthcare workers vaccinated with RNA- (BNT162b2, n. 100) or adenovirus-based vaccines (ChAdOx1, n. 50). Anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I, anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM before and after vaccination were investigated. Anti-platelet factor 4 immunoglobulins were also investigated as autoantibodies associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Additional organ (anti-thyroid) and non-organ (anti-nuclear) autoantibodies and IgG against human proteome were tested as further post-vaccination autoimmunity markers. The antibodies were tested one or three months after the first injection of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2, respectively; a 12-month clinical follow-up was also performed. Vaccination occasionally induced low titers of aPL and other autoantibodies but did not affect the titer of pre-existing autoantibodies. No significant reactivities against a microarray of approximately 20,000 human proteins were found in a subgroup of ChAdOx1-vaccinees. Consistently, we did not record any clinical manifestation theoretically associated with an underlying autoimmune disorder. The data obtained after the vaccination (two doses for the RNA-based and one dose for the adenovirus-based vaccines), and the clinical follow-up are not supporting the occurrence of an early autoimmune response in this cohort of healthcare workers.
COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; anti-phospholipid antibodies; autoantibodies; autoimmunity; Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; Autoantibodies; BNT162 Vaccine; COVID-19 Vaccines; Health Personnel; Humans; Immunoglobulin G; RNA; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccination; COVID-19
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/943360
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