Motoneuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative conditions associated with death of upper and/or lower motoneurons (MNs). Proteostasis alteration is a pathogenic mechanism involved in many MNDs and is due to the excessive presence of misfolded and aggregated proteins. Protein misfolding may be the product of gene mutations, or due to defects in the translation process, or to stress agents; all these conditions may alter the native conformation of proteins making them prone to aggregate. Alternatively, mutations in members of the protein quality control (PQC) sys-tem may determine a loss of function of the proteostasis network. This causes an impairment in the capability to handle and remove aberrant or damaged proteins. The PQC system consists of the degradative pathways, which are the autophagy and the proteasome, and a network of chap-erones and co-chaperones. Among these components, Heat Shock Protein 70 represents the main factor in substrate triage to folding, refolding, or degradation, and it is assisted in this task by a subclass of the chaperone network, the small heat shock protein (sHSPs/HSPBs) family. HSPBs take part in proteostasis by bridging misfolded and aggregated proteins to the HSP70 machinery and to the degradative pathways, facilitating refolding or clearance of the potentially toxic pro-teins. Because of its activity against proteostasis alteration, the chaperone system plays a relevant role in the protection against proteotoxicity in MNDs. Here, we discuss the role of HSPBs in MNDs and which HSPBs may represent a valid target for therapeutic purposes.

The Role of Small Heat Shock Proteins in Protein Misfolding Associated Motoneuron Diseases / B. Tedesco, V. Ferrari, M. Cozzi, M. Chierichetti, E. Casarotto, P. Pramaggiore, F. Mina, M. Galbiati, P. Rusmini, V. Crippa, R. Cristofani, A. Poletti. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 23:19(2022), pp. 11759.1-11759.24. [10.3390/ijms231911759]

The Role of Small Heat Shock Proteins in Protein Misfolding Associated Motoneuron Diseases

B. Tedesco
Primo
;
V. Ferrari
Secondo
;
M. Cozzi;M. Chierichetti;E. Casarotto;P. Pramaggiore;F. Mina;M. Galbiati;P. Rusmini;V. Crippa;R. Cristofani
Penultimo
;
A. Poletti
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Motoneuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative conditions associated with death of upper and/or lower motoneurons (MNs). Proteostasis alteration is a pathogenic mechanism involved in many MNDs and is due to the excessive presence of misfolded and aggregated proteins. Protein misfolding may be the product of gene mutations, or due to defects in the translation process, or to stress agents; all these conditions may alter the native conformation of proteins making them prone to aggregate. Alternatively, mutations in members of the protein quality control (PQC) sys-tem may determine a loss of function of the proteostasis network. This causes an impairment in the capability to handle and remove aberrant or damaged proteins. The PQC system consists of the degradative pathways, which are the autophagy and the proteasome, and a network of chap-erones and co-chaperones. Among these components, Heat Shock Protein 70 represents the main factor in substrate triage to folding, refolding, or degradation, and it is assisted in this task by a subclass of the chaperone network, the small heat shock protein (sHSPs/HSPBs) family. HSPBs take part in proteostasis by bridging misfolded and aggregated proteins to the HSP70 machinery and to the degradative pathways, facilitating refolding or clearance of the potentially toxic pro-teins. Because of its activity against proteostasis alteration, the chaperone system plays a relevant role in the protection against proteotoxicity in MNDs. Here, we discuss the role of HSPBs in MNDs and which HSPBs may represent a valid target for therapeutic purposes.
Motor Neuron Diseases; HSPBs; HSPB8; BAG3; autophagy; proteasome; protein misfiling; protein aggregation; proteostasis; protein quality control; chaperones amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; kennedy's disease; SBMA, ALS; polyglutamine; CAG repeat
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
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