Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare condition due to the presence of gas within the bowel wall; it is mainly caused by endoscopic procedures, infections and other gastrointestinal diseases. Oncological therapies have been reported to be a cause of PI as well, but their role is not clearly defined. This systematic review investigates the concurrency of PI and antitumor therapy in cancer patients, considering both solid tumors and onco-hematological ones. We performed a literature review of PubMed, Embase and the Web of Science up to September 2021 according to the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 62 papers reporting 88 different episodes were included. PI was mainly reported with targeted therapies (sunitinib and bevacizumab above all) within the first 12 weeks of treatment. This adverse event mostly occurred in the metastatic setting, but in 10 cases, it also occurred also in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. PI was mostly localized in the large intestine, being fatal in 11 cases, while in the remaining cases, symptoms were usually mild, or even absent. A significant risk of PI reoccurrence after drug reintroduction was also reported (6/18 patients), with no fatal outcomes. Potential pharmacological mechanisms underlying PI pathogenesis are also discussed. In conclusion, although uncommonly, PI can occur during oncological therapies and may lead to life-threatening complications; therefore, consideration of its occurrence among other adverse events is warranted in the presence of clinical suspicion.

Pneumatosis Intestinalis Induced by Anticancer Treatment: A Systematic Review / G. Gazzaniga, F. Villa, F. Tosi, E.G. Pizzutilo, S. Colla, S. D'Onghia, G. Di Sanza, G. Fornasier, M. Gringeri, M.V. Lucatelli, G. Mosini, A. Pani, S. Siena, F. Scaglione, A. Sartore-Bianchi. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:7(2022 Mar 25), pp. 1666.1-1666.15. [10.3390/cancers14071666]

Pneumatosis Intestinalis Induced by Anticancer Treatment: A Systematic Review

G. Gazzaniga
Co-primo
;
F. Villa
Co-primo
;
F. Tosi;E.G. Pizzutilo;S. Colla;S. D'Onghia;G. Di Sanza;G. Fornasier;M. Gringeri;M.V. Lucatelli;G. Mosini;A. Pani;S. Siena;F. Scaglione
Penultimo
;
A. Sartore-Bianchi
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare condition due to the presence of gas within the bowel wall; it is mainly caused by endoscopic procedures, infections and other gastrointestinal diseases. Oncological therapies have been reported to be a cause of PI as well, but their role is not clearly defined. This systematic review investigates the concurrency of PI and antitumor therapy in cancer patients, considering both solid tumors and onco-hematological ones. We performed a literature review of PubMed, Embase and the Web of Science up to September 2021 according to the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 62 papers reporting 88 different episodes were included. PI was mainly reported with targeted therapies (sunitinib and bevacizumab above all) within the first 12 weeks of treatment. This adverse event mostly occurred in the metastatic setting, but in 10 cases, it also occurred also in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. PI was mostly localized in the large intestine, being fatal in 11 cases, while in the remaining cases, symptoms were usually mild, or even absent. A significant risk of PI reoccurrence after drug reintroduction was also reported (6/18 patients), with no fatal outcomes. Potential pharmacological mechanisms underlying PI pathogenesis are also discussed. In conclusion, although uncommonly, PI can occur during oncological therapies and may lead to life-threatening complications; therefore, consideration of its occurrence among other adverse events is warranted in the presence of clinical suspicion.
adverse drug events; chemotherapy; hematology; immunotherapy; molecular targeted therapy; oncology; pneumatosis intestinalis
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/936235
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