Cyclo(His-Pro) (CHP) is a cyclic dipeptide which is endowed with favorable pharma-cokinetic properties combined with a variety of biological activities. CHP is found in a number of protein-rich foods and dietary supplements. While being stable at physiological pH, CHP can open yielding two symmetric dipeptides (His-Pro, Pro-His), the formation of which might be particularly relevant from dietary CHP due to the gastric acidic environment. The antioxidant and protective CHP properties were repeatedly reported although the non-enzymatic mechanisms were scantly investigated. The CHP detoxifying activity towards α,β unsaturated carbonyls was never investigated in detail, although its open dipeptides might be effective as already observed for histidine containing dipeptides. Hence, this study investigated the scavenging properties of TRH, CHP and its open derivatives towards 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The obtained results revealed that Pro-His possesses a marked activity and is more reactive than L-carnosine. As investigated by DFT calculations, the enhanced reactivity can be ascribed to the greater electrophilicity of the involved iminium interme-diate. These findings emphasize that the primary amine (as seen in L-carnosine) can be replaced by secondary amines with beneficial effects on the quenching mechanisms. Serum stability of the tested peptides was also evaluated, showing that Pro-His is characterized by a greater stability than L-carnosine. Docking simulations suggested that its hydrolysis can be catalyzed by serum carnosinase. Altogether, the reported results evidence that the antioxidant CHP properties can be also due to the detoxifying activity of its open dipeptides, which might be thus responsible for the beneficial effects induced by CHP containing food.

Cyclo(His-Pro) Exerts Protective Carbonyl Quenching Effects through Its Open Histidine Containing Dipeptides / L. Regazzoni, L. Fumagalli, A. Artasensi, S. Gervasoni, E. Gilardoni, A. Mazzolari, G. Aldini, G. Vistoli. - In: NUTRIENTS. - ISSN 2072-6643. - 14:9(2022 May), pp. 1775.1-1775.12. [10.3390/nu14091775]

Cyclo(His-Pro) Exerts Protective Carbonyl Quenching Effects through Its Open Histidine Containing Dipeptides

L. Regazzoni
Primo
;
L. Fumagalli
Secondo
;
A. Artasensi;S. Gervasoni;A. Mazzolari;G. Aldini
Penultimo
;
G. Vistoli
Ultimo
2022-05

Abstract

Cyclo(His-Pro) (CHP) is a cyclic dipeptide which is endowed with favorable pharma-cokinetic properties combined with a variety of biological activities. CHP is found in a number of protein-rich foods and dietary supplements. While being stable at physiological pH, CHP can open yielding two symmetric dipeptides (His-Pro, Pro-His), the formation of which might be particularly relevant from dietary CHP due to the gastric acidic environment. The antioxidant and protective CHP properties were repeatedly reported although the non-enzymatic mechanisms were scantly investigated. The CHP detoxifying activity towards α,β unsaturated carbonyls was never investigated in detail, although its open dipeptides might be effective as already observed for histidine containing dipeptides. Hence, this study investigated the scavenging properties of TRH, CHP and its open derivatives towards 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The obtained results revealed that Pro-His possesses a marked activity and is more reactive than L-carnosine. As investigated by DFT calculations, the enhanced reactivity can be ascribed to the greater electrophilicity of the involved iminium interme-diate. These findings emphasize that the primary amine (as seen in L-carnosine) can be replaced by secondary amines with beneficial effects on the quenching mechanisms. Serum stability of the tested peptides was also evaluated, showing that Pro-His is characterized by a greater stability than L-carnosine. Docking simulations suggested that its hydrolysis can be catalyzed by serum carnosinase. Altogether, the reported results evidence that the antioxidant CHP properties can be also due to the detoxifying activity of its open dipeptides, which might be thus responsible for the beneficial effects induced by CHP containing food.
carbonyl quench-ing; Cyclo(His-Pro); histidine containing peptides; HNE; organocatalysis; protein-rich foods; serum carnosinase;
Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica
23-apr-2022
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/926324
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