The most severe side effect of hemophilia treatment is the inhibitor development occurring in 30% of patients, during the earliest stages of treatment with factor (F)VIII concentrates. These catastrophic immune responses rapidly inactivate the infused FVIII, rendering the treatment ineffective. This complication is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. The risk factors involved in the onset of the inhibitors are both genetic and environmental. The source of FVIII products, i.e. plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII products, is considered one of the most relevant factors for inhibitor development. Numerous studies in the literature report conflicting data on the different immunogenicity of the products. The SIPPET randomized trial showed an increased in the inhibitor rate in patients using recombinant FVIII products than those receiving plasma-derived products in the first exposure days. The SIPPET randomized trial showed an increase in the inhibitor rate in patients using recombinant FVIII products compared to those treated with plasma-derived products in the first days of exposure. The potential increase in the immunogenicity of recombinant products can be attributed to several factors such as: the different post-translational modification in different cell lines, the presence of protein aggregates, and the role played by the chaperon protein of FVIII, the von Willebrand factor, which modulates the uptake of FVIII by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Furthermore, the presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against FVIII has shown to be in increased inhibitor development as demonstrated in a sub-analysis of the SIPPET study. In addition, the presence of the specific subclasses of the immunoglobulins may also be an important biomarker to indicate whether the inhibitor will evolve into a persistent neutralizing antibody or a transient one that would disappear without any specific treatment. Recently, the availability of novel non-replacement therapies as well as emicizumab, administered by weekly subcutaneous infusion, have significantly changed the quality of life of patients with inhibitors showing a considerable reduction of the annual bleeding rate and in most patients the absence of bleeding. Although, these novel drugs improve patients' quality of life, they do not abolish the need to infuse FVIII during acute bleeding or surgery. Therefore, the issue of immunogenicity against FVIII still remains an important side effect of hemophilia treatment.

Immune Responses to Plasma-Derived Versus Recombinant FVIII Products / F. Peyvandi, S. Miri, I. Garagiola. - In: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-3224. - 11(2021 Jan 22), pp. 591878.1-591878.11. [10.3389/fimmu.2020.591878]

Immune Responses to Plasma-Derived Versus Recombinant FVIII Products

F. Peyvandi
Primo
;
S. Miri
Secondo
;
I. Garagiola
Ultimo
2021-01-22

Abstract

The most severe side effect of hemophilia treatment is the inhibitor development occurring in 30% of patients, during the earliest stages of treatment with factor (F)VIII concentrates. These catastrophic immune responses rapidly inactivate the infused FVIII, rendering the treatment ineffective. This complication is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. The risk factors involved in the onset of the inhibitors are both genetic and environmental. The source of FVIII products, i.e. plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII products, is considered one of the most relevant factors for inhibitor development. Numerous studies in the literature report conflicting data on the different immunogenicity of the products. The SIPPET randomized trial showed an increased in the inhibitor rate in patients using recombinant FVIII products than those receiving plasma-derived products in the first exposure days. The SIPPET randomized trial showed an increase in the inhibitor rate in patients using recombinant FVIII products compared to those treated with plasma-derived products in the first days of exposure. The potential increase in the immunogenicity of recombinant products can be attributed to several factors such as: the different post-translational modification in different cell lines, the presence of protein aggregates, and the role played by the chaperon protein of FVIII, the von Willebrand factor, which modulates the uptake of FVIII by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Furthermore, the presence of non-neutralizing antibodies against FVIII has shown to be in increased inhibitor development as demonstrated in a sub-analysis of the SIPPET study. In addition, the presence of the specific subclasses of the immunoglobulins may also be an important biomarker to indicate whether the inhibitor will evolve into a persistent neutralizing antibody or a transient one that would disappear without any specific treatment. Recently, the availability of novel non-replacement therapies as well as emicizumab, administered by weekly subcutaneous infusion, have significantly changed the quality of life of patients with inhibitors showing a considerable reduction of the annual bleeding rate and in most patients the absence of bleeding. Although, these novel drugs improve patients' quality of life, they do not abolish the need to infuse FVIII during acute bleeding or surgery. Therefore, the issue of immunogenicity against FVIII still remains an important side effect of hemophilia treatment.
cell lines; inhibitors; plasma-derived products; post-translational modification; recombinant products; von Willebrand factor; animals; antibodies, neutralizing; blood coagulation factor inhibitors; blood coagulation factors; factor VIII; hemophilia A; humans; incidence; isoantibodies; recombinant proteins;
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/905750
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