MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection, is a pathological state observed in subjects younger than 21 years old with evidence of either current SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure within the 4 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms, the presence of documented fever, elevated markers of inflammation, at least two signs of multisystem involvement, and, finally, lack of an alternative diagnosis. They share with adult COVID-19 patients the presence of altered markers of inflammation, but unlike most adults the symptoms are not pulmonary but are affecting several organs. Lipid mediators arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play an important role in the inflammatory response, with arachidonic acid-derived compounds, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, mainly pro-inflammatory and ω3 PUFA metabolites such as resolvins and protectins, showing anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution activities. In order to assess potential alterations of these FA, we evaluated the blood fatty acid profile of MIS-C children at admission to the hospital, together with biochemical, metabolic and clinical assessment. All the patients enrolled showed altered inflammatory parameters with fibrinogen, D-dimer, NT-proBNP, ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP) and TrygIndex levels over the reference values in all the subjects under observation, while albumin and HDL-cholesterol resulted below the normal range. Interestingly, linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and the ω3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) results were lower in our study when compared to relative amounts reported in the other studies, including from our own laboratory. This significant alteration is pointing out to a potential depletion of these PUFA as a result of the systemic inflammatory condition typical of these patients, suggesting that LA-and AA-derived metabolites may play a critical role in this pathological state, while ω3 PUFA-derived pro-resolution metabolites in these subjects may not be able to provide a timely, physiological counterbalance to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. In conclusion, this observational study provides evidence of FA alterations in MIS-C children, suggesting a significant contribution of ω6 FA to the observed inflammatory state, and supporting a potential dietary intervention to restore an appropriate balance among the FAs capable of promoting the resolution of the observed inflammatory condition.

Blood fatty acids profile in mis-c children / E. Verduci, P. Rise, E. Di Profio, L. Fiori, S. Vizzuso, D. Dilillo, S. Mannarino, E. Zoia, V. Calcaterra, C. Pinna, A. Sala, G. Zuccotti. - In: METABOLITES. - ISSN 2218-1989. - 11:11(2021 Nov), pp. 721.1-721.13. [10.3390/metabo11110721]

Blood fatty acids profile in mis-c children

E. Verduci
Primo
;
E. Di Profio;S. Vizzuso;C. Pinna;A. Sala
Penultimo
;
G. Zuccotti
Ultimo
2021-11

Abstract

MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection, is a pathological state observed in subjects younger than 21 years old with evidence of either current SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure within the 4 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms, the presence of documented fever, elevated markers of inflammation, at least two signs of multisystem involvement, and, finally, lack of an alternative diagnosis. They share with adult COVID-19 patients the presence of altered markers of inflammation, but unlike most adults the symptoms are not pulmonary but are affecting several organs. Lipid mediators arising from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play an important role in the inflammatory response, with arachidonic acid-derived compounds, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, mainly pro-inflammatory and ω3 PUFA metabolites such as resolvins and protectins, showing anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution activities. In order to assess potential alterations of these FA, we evaluated the blood fatty acid profile of MIS-C children at admission to the hospital, together with biochemical, metabolic and clinical assessment. All the patients enrolled showed altered inflammatory parameters with fibrinogen, D-dimer, NT-proBNP, ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), C-reactive protein (CRP) and TrygIndex levels over the reference values in all the subjects under observation, while albumin and HDL-cholesterol resulted below the normal range. Interestingly, linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and the ω3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) results were lower in our study when compared to relative amounts reported in the other studies, including from our own laboratory. This significant alteration is pointing out to a potential depletion of these PUFA as a result of the systemic inflammatory condition typical of these patients, suggesting that LA-and AA-derived metabolites may play a critical role in this pathological state, while ω3 PUFA-derived pro-resolution metabolites in these subjects may not be able to provide a timely, physiological counterbalance to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. In conclusion, this observational study provides evidence of FA alterations in MIS-C children, suggesting a significant contribution of ω6 FA to the observed inflammatory state, and supporting a potential dietary intervention to restore an appropriate balance among the FAs capable of promoting the resolution of the observed inflammatory condition.
Arachidonic acid; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosanoids; Inflammation; Specialized pro-resolution mediators
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
22-ott-2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/896750
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