For more than a century, the methods of learning representation and the exploration of the intrinsic structures of data have developed remarkably and currently include supervised, semi-supervised, and unsupervised methods. However, recent years have witnessed the flourishing of big data, where typical dataset dimensions are high, and the data can come in messy, missing, incomplete, unlabeled, or corrupted forms. Consequently, discovering and learning the hidden structure buried inside such data becomes highly challenging. From this perspective, latent data analysis and dimensionality reduction play a substantial role in decomposing the exploratory factors and learning the hidden structures of data, which encompasses the significant features that characterize the categories and trends among data samples in an ordered manner. That is by extracting patterns, differentiating trends, and testing hypotheses to identify anomalies, learning compact knowledge, and performing many different machine learning (ML) tasks such as classification, detection, and prediction. Unsupervised generative learning (UGL) methods are a class of ML characterized by their possibility of analyzing and decomposing latent data, reducing dimensionality, visualizing the manifold of data, and learning representations with limited levels of predefined labels and prior assumptions. Furthermore, explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is an emerging field of ML that deals with explaining the decisions and behaviors of learned models. XAI is also associated with UGL models to explain the hidden structure of data, and to explain the learned representations of ML models. However, the current UGL models lack large-scale generalizability and explainability in the testing stage, which leads to restricting their potential in ML and XAI applications. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, this thesis proposes innovative methods that integrate UGL and XAI to enable data factorization and dimensionality reduction to improve the generalizability of the learned ML models. Moreover, the proposed methods enable visual explainability in modern applications as anomaly detection and autonomous driving systems. The main research contributions are listed as follows: • A novel overview of UGL models including blind source separation (BSS), manifold learning (MfL), and neural networks (NNs). Also, the overview considers open issues and challenges among each UGL method. • An innovative method to identify the dimensions of the compact feature space via a generalized rank in the application of image dimensionality reduction. • An innovative method to hierarchically reduce and visualize the manifold of data to improve the generalizability in limited data learning scenarios, and computational complexity reduction applications. • An original method to visually explain autoencoders by reconstructing an attention map in the application of anomaly detection and explainable autonomous driving systems. The novel methods introduced in this thesis are benchmarked on publicly available datasets, and they outperformed the state-of-the-art methods considering different evaluation metrics. Furthermore, superior results were obtained with respect to the state-of-the-art to confirm the feasibility of the proposed methodologies concerning the computational complexity, availability of learning data, model explainability, and high data reconstruction accuracy.

UNSUPERVISED GENERATIVE MODELS FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND EXPLAINABLE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE / M. Abukmeil ; relatore: V. Piuri ; correlatore: F. Scotti, A. Genovese ; direttore della scuola di dottorato: P. Boldi. - : . Dipartimento di Informatica Giovanni Degli Antoni, 2022 Jan 24. ((34. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2021. [10.13130/abukmeil-mohanad_phd2022-01-24].

UNSUPERVISED GENERATIVE MODELS FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND EXPLAINABLE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

M. Abukmeil
2022-01-24

Abstract

For more than a century, the methods of learning representation and the exploration of the intrinsic structures of data have developed remarkably and currently include supervised, semi-supervised, and unsupervised methods. However, recent years have witnessed the flourishing of big data, where typical dataset dimensions are high, and the data can come in messy, missing, incomplete, unlabeled, or corrupted forms. Consequently, discovering and learning the hidden structure buried inside such data becomes highly challenging. From this perspective, latent data analysis and dimensionality reduction play a substantial role in decomposing the exploratory factors and learning the hidden structures of data, which encompasses the significant features that characterize the categories and trends among data samples in an ordered manner. That is by extracting patterns, differentiating trends, and testing hypotheses to identify anomalies, learning compact knowledge, and performing many different machine learning (ML) tasks such as classification, detection, and prediction. Unsupervised generative learning (UGL) methods are a class of ML characterized by their possibility of analyzing and decomposing latent data, reducing dimensionality, visualizing the manifold of data, and learning representations with limited levels of predefined labels and prior assumptions. Furthermore, explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is an emerging field of ML that deals with explaining the decisions and behaviors of learned models. XAI is also associated with UGL models to explain the hidden structure of data, and to explain the learned representations of ML models. However, the current UGL models lack large-scale generalizability and explainability in the testing stage, which leads to restricting their potential in ML and XAI applications. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, this thesis proposes innovative methods that integrate UGL and XAI to enable data factorization and dimensionality reduction to improve the generalizability of the learned ML models. Moreover, the proposed methods enable visual explainability in modern applications as anomaly detection and autonomous driving systems. The main research contributions are listed as follows: • A novel overview of UGL models including blind source separation (BSS), manifold learning (MfL), and neural networks (NNs). Also, the overview considers open issues and challenges among each UGL method. • An innovative method to identify the dimensions of the compact feature space via a generalized rank in the application of image dimensionality reduction. • An innovative method to hierarchically reduce and visualize the manifold of data to improve the generalizability in limited data learning scenarios, and computational complexity reduction applications. • An original method to visually explain autoencoders by reconstructing an attention map in the application of anomaly detection and explainable autonomous driving systems. The novel methods introduced in this thesis are benchmarked on publicly available datasets, and they outperformed the state-of-the-art methods considering different evaluation metrics. Furthermore, superior results were obtained with respect to the state-of-the-art to confirm the feasibility of the proposed methodologies concerning the computational complexity, availability of learning data, model explainability, and high data reconstruction accuracy.
PIURI, VINCENZO
BOLDI, PAOLO
Machine Learning; Unsupervised Learning; Deep Learning; Data Analysis; Anomaly Detection; Autonomous Driving Systems
Settore INF/01 - Informatica
UNSUPERVISED GENERATIVE MODELS FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND EXPLAINABLE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE / M. Abukmeil ; relatore: V. Piuri ; correlatore: F. Scotti, A. Genovese ; direttore della scuola di dottorato: P. Boldi. - : . Dipartimento di Informatica Giovanni Degli Antoni, 2022 Jan 24. ((34. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2021. [10.13130/abukmeil-mohanad_phd2022-01-24].
Doctoral Thesis
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Descrizione: Ph.D. Thesis : Unsupervised Generative Models for Data Analysis and Explainable Artificial Intelligence
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/889159
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