Mutations are changes in the genetic material that may be transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutations appear spontaneously in nature and are one of the underlying driving forces of evolution. In plants, in vivo and in vitro random mutagenesis relies on the application of physical and chemical mutagens to increase the frequency of mutations thus accelerating the selection of varieties with important agronomic traits. The European Commission has requested EFSA to provide a more detailed description of in vivo and in vitro random mutagenesis techniques and the types of mutations and mechanisms involved, to be able to conclude on whether in vivo and in vitro random mutagenesis techniques are to be considered different techniques. To address the European Commission request, a literature search was conducted to collect information on the random mutagenesis techniques used in plants both in vivo and in vitro, on the type of mutations generated by such techniques and on the molecular mechanisms underlying formation of those mutations. The GMO Panel concludes that most physical and chemical mutagenesis techniques have been applied both in vivo and in vitro; the mutation process and the repair mechanisms act at cellular level and thus there is no difference between application of the mutagen in vivo or in vitro; and the type of mutations induced by a specific mutagen are expected to be the same, regardless of whether such mutagen is applied in vivo or in vitro. Indeed, the same mutation and the derived trait in a given plant species can be potentially obtained using both in vivo and in vitro random mutagenesis and the resulting mutants would be indistinguishable. Therefore, the GMO Panel concludes that the distinction between plants obtained by in vitro or in vivo approaches is not justified.
In vivo and in vitro random mutagenesis techniques in plants / E. Mullins, J.-. Bresson, T. Dalmay, I.C. Dewhurst, M.M. Epstein, L.G. Firbank, P. Guerche, J. Hejatko, F.J. Moreno, H. Naegeli, F. Nogue, J.J. Sanchez Serrano, G. Savoini, E. Veromann, F. Veronesi, J. Casacuberta, P. Lenzi, I. Munoz Guajardo, T. Raffaello, N. Rostoks. - In: EFSA JOURNAL. - ISSN 1831-4732. - 19:11(2021), pp. e06611.1-e06611.30. [10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6611]
|Titolo:||In vivo and in vitro random mutagenesis techniques in plants|
|Parole Chiave:||chemical mutagenesis; in vitro; in vivo; mutagen; mutation; physical mutagenesis; random mutagenesis|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6611|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|