The RAS oncogene is among the most commonly mutated in cancer. RAS mutations are identified in about half of patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), conferring poor prognosis and lack of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. In the last decades, several investigational attempts failed in directly targeting RAS mutations, thus RAS was historically regarded as ‘undruggable’. Recently, novel specific KRASG12C inhibitors showed promising results in different solid tumors, including mCRC, renewing interest in this biomarker as a target. In this review, we discuss different strategies of RAS targeting in mCRC, according to literature data in both clinical and preclinical settings. We recognized five main strategies focusing on those more promising: direct RAS targeting, targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, harnessing RAS through immunotherapy combinations, RAS targeting through metabolic pathways, and finally other miscellaneous approaches. Direct KRASG12C inhibition is emerging as the most promising strategy in mCRC as well as in other solid malignancies. However, despite good disease control rates, tumor response and duration of response are still limited in mCRC. At this regard, combinational approaches with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs or checkpoint inhibitors have been proposed to enhance treatment efficacy, based on encouraging results achieved in preclinical studies. Besides, concomitant therapies increasing metabolic stress are currently under evaluation and expected to also provide remarkable results in RAS codon mutations apart from KRASG12C. In conclusion, based on hereby reported efforts of translational research, RAS mutations should no longer be regarded as ‘undruggable’ and future avenues are now opening for translation in the clinic in mCRC.

Strategies to tackle RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer / G. Patelli, F. Tosi, A. Amatu, G. Mauri, A. Curaba, D.A. Patane, A. Pani, F. Scaglione, S. Siena, A. Sartore Bianchi. - In: ESMO OPEN. - ISSN 2059-7029. - 6:3(2021 Jun), pp. 100156.1-100156.13. [10.1016/j.esmoop.2021.100156]

Strategies to tackle RAS-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer

Patelli G.;Tosi F.;Mauri G.;Curaba A.;Patane D. A.;Pani A.;Scaglione F.;Siena S.;Sartore Bianchi A.
2021-06

Abstract

The RAS oncogene is among the most commonly mutated in cancer. RAS mutations are identified in about half of patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), conferring poor prognosis and lack of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies. In the last decades, several investigational attempts failed in directly targeting RAS mutations, thus RAS was historically regarded as ‘undruggable’. Recently, novel specific KRASG12C inhibitors showed promising results in different solid tumors, including mCRC, renewing interest in this biomarker as a target. In this review, we discuss different strategies of RAS targeting in mCRC, according to literature data in both clinical and preclinical settings. We recognized five main strategies focusing on those more promising: direct RAS targeting, targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, harnessing RAS through immunotherapy combinations, RAS targeting through metabolic pathways, and finally other miscellaneous approaches. Direct KRASG12C inhibition is emerging as the most promising strategy in mCRC as well as in other solid malignancies. However, despite good disease control rates, tumor response and duration of response are still limited in mCRC. At this regard, combinational approaches with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs or checkpoint inhibitors have been proposed to enhance treatment efficacy, based on encouraging results achieved in preclinical studies. Besides, concomitant therapies increasing metabolic stress are currently under evaluation and expected to also provide remarkable results in RAS codon mutations apart from KRASG12C. In conclusion, based on hereby reported efforts of translational research, RAS mutations should no longer be regarded as ‘undruggable’ and future avenues are now opening for translation in the clinic in mCRC.
adagrasib; colorectal cancer; KRAS; RAS; sotorasib;
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
ESMO OPEN
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
patelli et al RAS ESMO Open 2021.pdf

accesso aperto

734.99 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/865711
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 4
social impact