For centuries, natural products (NPs) have served as powerful therapeutics against a variety of human ailments. Nowadays, they still represent invaluable resources for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. After nearly three decades since the World Health Organization's (WHO) declaration of tuberculosis (TB) as a global health emergency, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues to claim millions of lives, remaining among the leading causes of death worldwide. In the last years, several efforts have been devoted to shortening and improving treatment outcomes, and to overcoming the increasing resistance phenomenon. Nature has always provided a virtually unlimited source of bioactive molecules, which have inspired the development of new drugs. NPs are characterized by an exceptional chemical and structural diversity, the result of millennia of evolutionary responses to various stimuli. Thanks to their favorable structural features and their enzymatic origin, they are naturally prone to bind proteins and exhibit bioactivities. Furthermore, their worldwide distribution and ease of accessibility has contributed to promote investigations on their activity. Overall, these characteristics make NPs excellent models for the design of novel therapeutics. This review offers a critical and comprehensive overview of the most promising NPs, isolated from plants, fungi, marine species, and bacteria, endowed with inhibitory properties against traditional and emerging mycobacterial enzymatic targets. A selection of 86 compounds is here discussed, with a special emphasis on their biological activity, structure–activity relationships, and mechanism of action. Our study corroborates the antimycobacterial potential of NPs, substantiating their relevance in future drug discovery and development efforts.

Natural products against key Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzymatic targets : Emerging opportunities for drug discovery / G. Cazzaniga, M. Mori, L. Roberto Chiarelli, A. Gelain, F. Meneghetti, S. Villa. - In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0223-5234. - 224:(2021 Nov 15), pp. 113732.1-113732.19. [10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113732]

Natural products against key Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzymatic targets : Emerging opportunities for drug discovery

G. Cazzaniga
Primo
;
M. Mori
Secondo
;
A. Gelain;F. Meneghetti
Penultimo
;
S. Villa
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

For centuries, natural products (NPs) have served as powerful therapeutics against a variety of human ailments. Nowadays, they still represent invaluable resources for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. After nearly three decades since the World Health Organization's (WHO) declaration of tuberculosis (TB) as a global health emergency, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues to claim millions of lives, remaining among the leading causes of death worldwide. In the last years, several efforts have been devoted to shortening and improving treatment outcomes, and to overcoming the increasing resistance phenomenon. Nature has always provided a virtually unlimited source of bioactive molecules, which have inspired the development of new drugs. NPs are characterized by an exceptional chemical and structural diversity, the result of millennia of evolutionary responses to various stimuli. Thanks to their favorable structural features and their enzymatic origin, they are naturally prone to bind proteins and exhibit bioactivities. Furthermore, their worldwide distribution and ease of accessibility has contributed to promote investigations on their activity. Overall, these characteristics make NPs excellent models for the design of novel therapeutics. This review offers a critical and comprehensive overview of the most promising NPs, isolated from plants, fungi, marine species, and bacteria, endowed with inhibitory properties against traditional and emerging mycobacterial enzymatic targets. A selection of 86 compounds is here discussed, with a special emphasis on their biological activity, structure–activity relationships, and mechanism of action. Our study corroborates the antimycobacterial potential of NPs, substantiating their relevance in future drug discovery and development efforts.
natural inhibitors; tuberculosis; mycobacterial enzymes; anti-TB drug discovery; secondary metabolites; DNA and RNA biosynthesis; protein biosynthesis; cell wall biosynthesis; immune escape mechanisms; metabolic pathways
Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
15-nov-2021
1-ago-2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/862078
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