There are billions of books that in recent and in ancient times have been produced by the human race containing evidence of its intellectual and cultural efforts. Evenwhen stored in libraries, not all these books survive over time undamaged, because in the biosphere their materials are potential nutrients. This is the unfortunate case of the History and Historical Documentation Library of the University of Milan, where biological agents have badly affected rare and valuable old books. An entomologicalmonitoringwas carried out using sticky traps and collecting insects during inspections. The beetle Gastrallus pubens Fairmaire, rarely identified in European libraries so far, was the main biological agent responsible for the book damage, since several tunnels due to larval activity and holes made by adults were observed. Using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteriawere found to be themost abundant phyla. Ascomycotawas the dominant phylum among three fungal phyla. As bacteria and fungi spread by the insects are primary indications of the insect presence in the library, in this paper a potential biomarker able to detect the G. pubens presence before visible infestation was searched for among the bacterial and fungal community peculiar in the insect frass and gut, but also found on books and the surfaces of shelves. Symbiotaphrina, an ascomycete fungus described as one of the symbiotic levuliform fungi, present in the anobiid beetles' gut,was the only one found in all samples analyzed and has therefore been proposed as a putative biomarker.

Biological risk assessment in the History and Historical Documentation Library of the University of Milan / S. Savoldelli, C. Cattò, F. Villa, M. Saracchi, F. Troiano, P. Cortesi, F. Cappitelli. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 790(2021), pp. 148204.1-148204.11. [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148204]

Biological risk assessment in the History and Historical Documentation Library of the University of Milan

S. Savoldelli
Primo
;
C. Cattò
Secondo
;
F. Villa;M. Saracchi;F. Troiano;P. Cortesi;F. Cappitelli
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

There are billions of books that in recent and in ancient times have been produced by the human race containing evidence of its intellectual and cultural efforts. Evenwhen stored in libraries, not all these books survive over time undamaged, because in the biosphere their materials are potential nutrients. This is the unfortunate case of the History and Historical Documentation Library of the University of Milan, where biological agents have badly affected rare and valuable old books. An entomologicalmonitoringwas carried out using sticky traps and collecting insects during inspections. The beetle Gastrallus pubens Fairmaire, rarely identified in European libraries so far, was the main biological agent responsible for the book damage, since several tunnels due to larval activity and holes made by adults were observed. Using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteriawere found to be themost abundant phyla. Ascomycotawas the dominant phylum among three fungal phyla. As bacteria and fungi spread by the insects are primary indications of the insect presence in the library, in this paper a potential biomarker able to detect the G. pubens presence before visible infestation was searched for among the bacterial and fungal community peculiar in the insect frass and gut, but also found on books and the surfaces of shelves. Symbiotaphrina, an ascomycete fungus described as one of the symbiotic levuliform fungi, present in the anobiid beetles' gut,was the only one found in all samples analyzed and has therefore been proposed as a putative biomarker.
Gastrallus pubens; Symbiotaphrina; Monitoring; Illumina MiSeq; Microorganisms
Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria
Settore AGR/11 - Entomologia Generale e Applicata
Settore AGR/12 - Patologia Vegetale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/849601
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