Smoking cessation induces a withdrawal syndrome associated with anxiety, depression, and impaired neurocognitive functions, but much less is known about the withdrawal of e-cigarettes (e-CIG). We investigated in Balb/c mice the behavioural and neurochemical effects of withdrawal for up to 90 days after seven weeks’ intermittent exposure to e-CIG vapour or cigarette smoke (CIG). The withdrawal of e-CIG and CIG induced early behavioural alterations such as spatial memory deficits (spatial object recognition task), increased anxiety (elevated plus maze test) and compulsive-like behaviour (marble burying test) that persisted for 60–90 days. Notably, attention-related (virtual object recognition task) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension and sucrose preference tests) appeared only 15–30 days after withdrawal and persisted for as long as up to 90 days. At hippocampal level, the withdrawal-induced changes in the levels of AMPA receptor GluA1 and GluA2/3 subunits, PSD 95 protein, corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) and Crf receptor 1 (CrfR1) mRNA were biphasic: AMPA receptor subunit and PSD95 protein levels initially remained unchanged and decreased after 60–90 days, whereas Crf/CrfR1 mRNA levels initially increased and then markedly decreased after 60 days. These late reductions correlated with the behavioural impairments, particularly the appearance of depression-like behaviours. Our findings show that major behavioural and neurochemical alterations persist or even first appear late after the withdrawal of chronic CIG smoke or e-CIG vapour exposure, and underline importance of conducting similar studies of humans, including e-CIG vapers.
Persistent cognitive and affective alterations at late withdrawal stages after long-term intermittent exposure to tobacco smoke or electronic cigarette vapour : Behavioural changes and their neurochemical correlates / L. Ponzoni, D. Braida, L. Carboni, M. Moretti, P. Viani, F. Clementi, M. Zoli, C. Gotti, M. Sala. - In: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 1043-6618. - 158(2020 Aug), pp. 104941.1-104941.12.
|Titolo:||Persistent cognitive and affective alterations at late withdrawal stages after long-term intermittent exposure to tobacco smoke or electronic cigarette vapour : Behavioural changes and their neurochemical correlates|
PONZONI, LUISA (Primo)
BRAIDA, DANIELA (Secondo)
SALA, MARIAELVINA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||AMPA glutamate receptors; behaviour; cigarette smoke; Crf; Crf receptors; e-cigarette vapour; NMDA; withdrawal|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
|Data di pubblicazione:||ago-2020|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||23-mag-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104941|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|