Smoking cessation induces a withdrawal syndrome associated with anxiety, depression, and impaired neurocognitive functions, but much less is known about the withdrawal of e-cigarettes (e-CIG). We investigated in Balb/c mice the behavioural and neurochemical effects of withdrawal for up to 90 days after seven weeks’ intermittent exposure to e-CIG vapour or cigarette smoke (CIG). The withdrawal of e-CIG and CIG induced early behavioural alterations such as spatial memory deficits (spatial object recognition task), increased anxiety (elevated plus maze test) and compulsive-like behaviour (marble burying test) that persisted for 60–90 days. Notably, attention-related (virtual object recognition task) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension and sucrose preference tests) appeared only 15–30 days after withdrawal and persisted for as long as up to 90 days. At hippocampal level, the withdrawal-induced changes in the levels of AMPA receptor GluA1 and GluA2/3 subunits, PSD 95 protein, corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) and Crf receptor 1 (CrfR1) mRNA were biphasic: AMPA receptor subunit and PSD95 protein levels initially remained unchanged and decreased after 60–90 days, whereas Crf/CrfR1 mRNA levels initially increased and then markedly decreased after 60 days. These late reductions correlated with the behavioural impairments, particularly the appearance of depression-like behaviours. Our findings show that major behavioural and neurochemical alterations persist or even first appear late after the withdrawal of chronic CIG smoke or e-CIG vapour exposure, and underline importance of conducting similar studies of humans, including e-CIG vapers.

Persistent cognitive and affective alterations at late withdrawal stages after long-term intermittent exposure to tobacco smoke or electronic cigarette vapour : Behavioural changes and their neurochemical correlates / L. Ponzoni, D. Braida, L. Carboni, M. Moretti, P. Viani, F. Clementi, M. Zoli, C. Gotti, M. Sala. - In: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 1043-6618. - 158(2020 Aug), pp. 104941.1-104941.12. [10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104941]

Persistent cognitive and affective alterations at late withdrawal stages after long-term intermittent exposure to tobacco smoke or electronic cigarette vapour : Behavioural changes and their neurochemical correlates

L. Ponzoni
Primo
;
D. Braida
Secondo
;
M. Moretti;P. Viani;F. Clementi;M. Sala
Ultimo
2020

Abstract

Smoking cessation induces a withdrawal syndrome associated with anxiety, depression, and impaired neurocognitive functions, but much less is known about the withdrawal of e-cigarettes (e-CIG). We investigated in Balb/c mice the behavioural and neurochemical effects of withdrawal for up to 90 days after seven weeks’ intermittent exposure to e-CIG vapour or cigarette smoke (CIG). The withdrawal of e-CIG and CIG induced early behavioural alterations such as spatial memory deficits (spatial object recognition task), increased anxiety (elevated plus maze test) and compulsive-like behaviour (marble burying test) that persisted for 60–90 days. Notably, attention-related (virtual object recognition task) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension and sucrose preference tests) appeared only 15–30 days after withdrawal and persisted for as long as up to 90 days. At hippocampal level, the withdrawal-induced changes in the levels of AMPA receptor GluA1 and GluA2/3 subunits, PSD 95 protein, corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) and Crf receptor 1 (CrfR1) mRNA were biphasic: AMPA receptor subunit and PSD95 protein levels initially remained unchanged and decreased after 60–90 days, whereas Crf/CrfR1 mRNA levels initially increased and then markedly decreased after 60 days. These late reductions correlated with the behavioural impairments, particularly the appearance of depression-like behaviours. Our findings show that major behavioural and neurochemical alterations persist or even first appear late after the withdrawal of chronic CIG smoke or e-CIG vapour exposure, and underline importance of conducting similar studies of humans, including e-CIG vapers.
AMPA glutamate receptors; behaviour; cigarette smoke; Crf; Crf receptors; e-cigarette vapour; NMDA; withdrawal
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
23-mag-2020
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
YPHRS-D-20-00451_R1 per air.pdf

Open Access dal 24/08/2021

Tipologia: Post-print, accepted manuscript ecc. (versione accettata dall'editore)
Dimensione 874.75 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
874.75 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
1-s2.0-S1043661820312494-main.pdf

accesso riservato

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 1.36 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.36 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/825968
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 4
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 4
social impact