This study investigated the effects of 2 Achillea moschata essential oils extracted from plants collected in 2 different valleys of the Italian Alps and 3 pure compounds of oils — bornyl acetate (BOR), camphor (CAM), and eucalyptol (EUCA) — on in vitro ruminal fermentation and microbiota. An in vitro batch fermentation experiment (Exp. 1) tested the addition of all of the substances (2 essential oils and 3 compounds) in fermentation bottles (120 mL) at 48 h of incubation, whereas a subsequent in vitro continuous culture experiment (Exp. 2) evaluated the pure compounds added to the fermenters (2 L) for a longer incubation period (9 d). In both experiments, total mixed rations were incubated with the additives, and samples without additives were included as the control (CTR). Each treatment was tested in duplicate and was repeated in 3 and 2 fermentation runs in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Gas production (GP) in Exp. 1 was similar for all of the treatments, and short chain volatile fatty acid (SCFA) production was similar in both experiments except for a decrease of SCFA produced (P = 0.029) due to EUCA addition in Exp. 2. Compared to CTR, BOR and CAM reduced the valerate proportion (P = 0.04) in Exp. 1, and increased (P < 0.01) the acetate proportion in Exp. 2. All treatments increased (P < 0.01) total protozoa counts (+36.7% and +48.4% compared to CTR on average for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). In Exp. 1, all of the treatments lowered the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and increased the Proteobacteria relative abundances (P < 0.05), whereas in Exp. 2, the EUCA addition increased (P = 0.012) the Ruminococcus. In Exp. 1, methane (CH4) as a proportion of the GP was lowered (P = 0.004) by the addition of CAM and EUCA compared to CTR, whereas in Exp. 2, EUCA reduced the amount of stoichiometrically calculated CH4 compared to CTR. Overall, essential oils extracted from A. moschata and the pure compounds did not depress in vitro rumen fermentation, except for EUCA in Exp. 2. In both experiments, an increase of the protozoal population occurred for all the additives.

Evaluation of dietary addition of 2 essential oils from Achillea moschata, or their components (bornyl acetate, camphor, and eucalyptol) on in~vitro ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition / S. Colombini, A. Rota Graziosi, P. Parma, M. Iriti, S. Vitalini, C. Sarnataro, M. Spanghero. - In: ANIMAL NUTRITION. - ISSN 2405-6545. - 7:1(2021 Mar), pp. 224-231. [10.1016/j.aninu.2020.11.001]

Evaluation of dietary addition of 2 essential oils from Achillea moschata, or their components (bornyl acetate, camphor, and eucalyptol) on in~vitro ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition

Stefania Colombini;Andrea Rota Graziosi;Pietro Parma;Marcello Iriti;Sara Vitalini;
2021-03

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of 2 Achillea moschata essential oils extracted from plants collected in 2 different valleys of the Italian Alps and 3 pure compounds of oils — bornyl acetate (BOR), camphor (CAM), and eucalyptol (EUCA) — on in vitro ruminal fermentation and microbiota. An in vitro batch fermentation experiment (Exp. 1) tested the addition of all of the substances (2 essential oils and 3 compounds) in fermentation bottles (120 mL) at 48 h of incubation, whereas a subsequent in vitro continuous culture experiment (Exp. 2) evaluated the pure compounds added to the fermenters (2 L) for a longer incubation period (9 d). In both experiments, total mixed rations were incubated with the additives, and samples without additives were included as the control (CTR). Each treatment was tested in duplicate and was repeated in 3 and 2 fermentation runs in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Gas production (GP) in Exp. 1 was similar for all of the treatments, and short chain volatile fatty acid (SCFA) production was similar in both experiments except for a decrease of SCFA produced (P = 0.029) due to EUCA addition in Exp. 2. Compared to CTR, BOR and CAM reduced the valerate proportion (P = 0.04) in Exp. 1, and increased (P < 0.01) the acetate proportion in Exp. 2. All treatments increased (P < 0.01) total protozoa counts (+36.7% and +48.4% compared to CTR on average for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). In Exp. 1, all of the treatments lowered the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and increased the Proteobacteria relative abundances (P < 0.05), whereas in Exp. 2, the EUCA addition increased (P = 0.012) the Ruminococcus. In Exp. 1, methane (CH4) as a proportion of the GP was lowered (P = 0.004) by the addition of CAM and EUCA compared to CTR, whereas in Exp. 2, EUCA reduced the amount of stoichiometrically calculated CH4 compared to CTR. Overall, essential oils extracted from A. moschata and the pure compounds did not depress in vitro rumen fermentation, except for EUCA in Exp. 2. In both experiments, an increase of the protozoal population occurred for all the additives.
Methane; Rumen fermentation; Achillea moschata; Protozoa Microbiome
Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale
Settore AGR/17 - Zootecnica Generale e Miglioramento Genetico
Settore AGR/12 - Patologia Vegetale
feb-2021
ANIMAL NUTRITION
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/817605
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