Background Animal models and few clinical reports suggest the involvement of the complement system in the onset of severe manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, complement contribution to endotheliopathy and hypercoagulability has not been elucidated yet. Objective To evaluate the association among complement activation, endothelial damage and disease severity or activity in COVID-19 patients. Methods In this single-centre cohort study, 148 patients with COVID-19 of different severity were evaluated upon hospital admission and 30 days later. Markers of complement activation (SC5b-9 and C5a) and endothelial perturbation (von Willebrand factor [vWF], tissue-type plasminogen activator [t-PA], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], and soluble endothelial selectin [sE-selectin]) were measured in plasma. Results The patients had high plasma levels of SC5b-9 and C5a (p = 0.0001 for both) and vWF, t-PA and PAI-1 (p = 0.0001 for all). Their SC5b-9 levels correlated with those of vWF (r = 0.517, p = 0.0001) and paralleled disease severity (severe vs mild p = 0.0001, severe vs moderate p = 0.026 and moderate vs mild p = 0.001). The levels of sE-selectin were significantly increased only in the patients with severe disease. After 30 days, plasma SC5b-9, C5a and vWF levels had significantly decreased (p = 0.0001 for all), and 43% of the evaluated patients had normal levels. Conclusions Complement activation is boosted during the progression of COVID-19 and dampened during remission, thus indicating its role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The association between complement activation and the biomarkers of endothelial damage suggests that complement may contribute to tissue injury and could be the target of specific therapy.

Complement activation and endothelial perturbation parallel COVID-19 severity and activity / M. Cugno, P.L. Meroni, R. Gualtierotti, S. Griffini, E. Grovetti, A. Torri, P. Lonati, C. Grossi, M.O. Borghi, C. Novembrino, M. Boscolo, S.C. Uceda Renteria, L. Valenti, G. Lamorte, M. Manunta, D. Prati, A. Pesenti, F. Blasi, G. Costantino, A. Gori, A. Bandera, F. Tedesco, F. Peyvandi. - In: JOURNAL OF AUTOIMMUNITY. - ISSN 0896-8411. - 116(2021 Jan). [10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102560]

Complement activation and endothelial perturbation parallel COVID-19 severity and activity

M. Cugno
Primo
;
P.L. Meroni
Secondo
;
R. Gualtierotti;P. Lonati;C. Grossi;M.O. Borghi;L. Valenti;A. Pesenti;F. Blasi;G. Costantino;A. Gori;A. Bandera;F. Peyvandi
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background Animal models and few clinical reports suggest the involvement of the complement system in the onset of severe manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, complement contribution to endotheliopathy and hypercoagulability has not been elucidated yet. Objective To evaluate the association among complement activation, endothelial damage and disease severity or activity in COVID-19 patients. Methods In this single-centre cohort study, 148 patients with COVID-19 of different severity were evaluated upon hospital admission and 30 days later. Markers of complement activation (SC5b-9 and C5a) and endothelial perturbation (von Willebrand factor [vWF], tissue-type plasminogen activator [t-PA], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], soluble thrombomodulin [sTM], and soluble endothelial selectin [sE-selectin]) were measured in plasma. Results The patients had high plasma levels of SC5b-9 and C5a (p = 0.0001 for both) and vWF, t-PA and PAI-1 (p = 0.0001 for all). Their SC5b-9 levels correlated with those of vWF (r = 0.517, p = 0.0001) and paralleled disease severity (severe vs mild p = 0.0001, severe vs moderate p = 0.026 and moderate vs mild p = 0.001). The levels of sE-selectin were significantly increased only in the patients with severe disease. After 30 days, plasma SC5b-9, C5a and vWF levels had significantly decreased (p = 0.0001 for all), and 43% of the evaluated patients had normal levels. Conclusions Complement activation is boosted during the progression of COVID-19 and dampened during remission, thus indicating its role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The association between complement activation and the biomarkers of endothelial damage suggests that complement may contribute to tissue injury and could be the target of specific therapy.
C5a; COVID-19; Complement; Endothelium; SC5b-9; von Willebrand factor
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
gen-2021
29-ott-2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/783988
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