Background The study determines the pharmacokinetic profiles of dexmedetomidine (DEX), ketamine (KET) and its active metabolite, norketamine (NORKET), after simultaneous administration. Moreover, the study evaluates the sedative effects of this protocol, its influence on the main physiological variables and the occurrence of adverse effects. Methods Eighteen captive tigers were initially administered with a mixture of DEX (10 µg/kg) and KET (2 mg/kg) by remote intramuscular injection. In case of individual and specific needs, the protocol was modified and tigers could receive general anaesthesia, propofol or additional doses of DEX and KET. Results Based on the immobilisation protocol, nine animals were assigned to the standard protocol group and the other nine to the non-standard protocol group. Higher area under the first moment curve (AUMC0-last) and longer mean residence time (MRT0-last) (P<0.05) were observed in the non-standard protocol group for DEX, KET and NORKET, and higher area under the concentration-time curve from administration to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) only for KET. The KET metabolisation rate was similar (P=0.296) between groups. No differences between groups were detected in terms of stages of sedation and recoveries. All physiological variables remained within normality ranges during the whole observation period. During the hospitalisation period, no severe adverse reactions and signs of resedation were observed. Conclusion The simultaneous administration of 10 µg/kg of DEX and 2 mg/kg of KET can be considered an effective protocol for chemical immobilisation of captive tigers, along with dosage adjusments or when other drugs are needed.

Dexmedetomidine and ketamine simultaneous administration in tigers (Panthera tigris) : pharmacokinetics and clinical effects / F. Di Cesare, P. Cagnardi, R. Villa, V. Rabbogliatti, L. Lucatello, F. Capolongo, D. Gioeni, M. Capasso, W. Magnone, G. Ravasio. - In: VETERINARY RECORD OPEN. - ISSN 2052-6113. - 7:1(2020 Nov), pp. e000412.1-e000412.11. [10.1136/vetreco-2020-000412]

Dexmedetomidine and ketamine simultaneous administration in tigers (Panthera tigris) : pharmacokinetics and clinical effects

Di Cesare, Federica;Cagnardi, Petra;Villa, Roberto;Rabbogliatti, Vanessa;Gioeni, Daniela;Ravasio, Giuliano
2020-11

Abstract

Background The study determines the pharmacokinetic profiles of dexmedetomidine (DEX), ketamine (KET) and its active metabolite, norketamine (NORKET), after simultaneous administration. Moreover, the study evaluates the sedative effects of this protocol, its influence on the main physiological variables and the occurrence of adverse effects. Methods Eighteen captive tigers were initially administered with a mixture of DEX (10 µg/kg) and KET (2 mg/kg) by remote intramuscular injection. In case of individual and specific needs, the protocol was modified and tigers could receive general anaesthesia, propofol or additional doses of DEX and KET. Results Based on the immobilisation protocol, nine animals were assigned to the standard protocol group and the other nine to the non-standard protocol group. Higher area under the first moment curve (AUMC0-last) and longer mean residence time (MRT0-last) (P<0.05) were observed in the non-standard protocol group for DEX, KET and NORKET, and higher area under the concentration-time curve from administration to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) only for KET. The KET metabolisation rate was similar (P=0.296) between groups. No differences between groups were detected in terms of stages of sedation and recoveries. All physiological variables remained within normality ranges during the whole observation period. During the hospitalisation period, no severe adverse reactions and signs of resedation were observed. Conclusion The simultaneous administration of 10 µg/kg of DEX and 2 mg/kg of KET can be considered an effective protocol for chemical immobilisation of captive tigers, along with dosage adjusments or when other drugs are needed.
Settore VET/07 - Farmacologia e Tossicologia Veterinaria
Settore VET/09 - Clinica Chirurgica Veterinaria
VETERINARY RECORD OPEN
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/783213
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