BACKGROUND: Since breastfeeding and human milk seem to prevent, while high dietary proteins in the first 2 y of life seem to promote, later overweight, questions have been raised on the safe levels of proteins in the early years. How much protein (as a percentage of total calorie intake) is safe? METHODS: Revision of available data on the protein content of human milk, protein intake in the first 2 y of life and their association with body mass development. RESULTS: We should move from the figure of 7-8% in the 4-month exclusively breastfed infants up to the maximum acceptable levels of 14% in 12-24-month-old infants. When protein supply represents less than 6% and energy is limited, fully breastfed infants are likely to enter a status of negative nutrient balance. Over the limit of 14% energy from proteins in the 6-24 months period, some mechanisms may begin to operate, leading young children towards an early adiposity rebound and overweight development, beyond any genetic predisposition. Preliminary data seem to indicate a causal role for whole cow's milk proteins. CONCLUSION: We suggest maintaining breastfeeding as long as possible, and, in case human milk is insufficient, to introduce infant formulas, appropriate for age, up to 18-24 months, in order to keep protein intakes in the safe range of 8-12% within a diet adequate in energy and balanced as far as macronutrients.
How much protein is safe? / C. Agostoni, S. Scaglioni, D. Ghisleni, E. Verduci, M. Giovannini, E. Riva. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY. - ISSN 0307-0565. - 29:Suppl. 2(2005), pp. S8-S13.
|Titolo:||How much protein is safe?|
AGOSTONI, CARLO VIRGINIO (Primo)
SCAGLIONI, SILVIA (Secondo)
GIOVANNINI, MARCELLO (Penultimo)
RIVA, ENRICA LICIA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||body composition ; body fat ; breast feeding ; dietary protein ; human diseases ; human milk ; infant feeding ; infants ; nutrient requirements ; obesity ; overweight ; physiopathology ; protein intake|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803095|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|