Background: 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an Interferon stimulated gene (ISG), which catalyzes the synthesis of 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC intervenes in metabolic and infectious processes as controls cholesterol homeostasis and influences viral entry into host cells.We verified whether natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals is at least partially mediated by particularities in sterol biosynthesis. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from 15 sexually-exposed HESN and 15 healthy controls (HC) were in vitro HIV-1-infected and analyzed for: 1) percentage of IFNα-producing plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs); 2) Cholesterol signaling and inflammatory response RNA expression; 3) resistance to HIV-1 infection. MDMs from 5 HC were in vitro HIV-1-infected in the absence/presence of exogenously added 25HC. Results: IFNα-producing pDCs were augmented in HESN compared to HCs both in unstimulated and in in vitro HIV-1-infected PBMCs (p<0.001). An increased expression of CH25H and of a number of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism (ABCA1, ABCG1, CYP7B1, LXRα, OSBP, PPARγ, SCARB1) was observed as well; this, was associated with a reduced susceptibility to in vitro HIV-1-infection of PBMCs and MDMs (p<0.01). Notably, addition of 25HC to MDMs resulted in increased cholesterol efflux and augmented resistance to in vitro HIV-1-infection. Conclusions: Results herein show that in HESN sterol metabolism might be particularly efficient. This could be related to the activation of the IFNα pathway and results into a reduced susceptibility to in vitro HIV-1 infection. These results suggest a possible basis for therapeutic interventions to modulate HIV-1 infection.

Sterol metabolism modulates susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection / I. Saulle, S.V. Ibba, C. Vittori, C. Fenizia, V. Mercurio, F. Vichi, S.L. Caputo, D. Trabattoni, M. Clerici, M. Biasin. - In: AIDS. - ISSN 0269-9370. - (2020 Jun 04). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1097/QAD.0000000000002591]

Sterol metabolism modulates susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection

Saulle, Irma;Ibba, Salomè Valentina;Vittori, Cecilia;Fenizia, Claudio;Mercurio, Vincenzo;Trabattoni, Daria;Clerici, Mario;Biasin, Mara
2020-06-04

Abstract

Background: 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an Interferon stimulated gene (ISG), which catalyzes the synthesis of 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC intervenes in metabolic and infectious processes as controls cholesterol homeostasis and influences viral entry into host cells.We verified whether natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals is at least partially mediated by particularities in sterol biosynthesis. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from 15 sexually-exposed HESN and 15 healthy controls (HC) were in vitro HIV-1-infected and analyzed for: 1) percentage of IFNα-producing plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs); 2) Cholesterol signaling and inflammatory response RNA expression; 3) resistance to HIV-1 infection. MDMs from 5 HC were in vitro HIV-1-infected in the absence/presence of exogenously added 25HC. Results: IFNα-producing pDCs were augmented in HESN compared to HCs both in unstimulated and in in vitro HIV-1-infected PBMCs (p<0.001). An increased expression of CH25H and of a number of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism (ABCA1, ABCG1, CYP7B1, LXRα, OSBP, PPARγ, SCARB1) was observed as well; this, was associated with a reduced susceptibility to in vitro HIV-1-infection of PBMCs and MDMs (p<0.01). Notably, addition of 25HC to MDMs resulted in increased cholesterol efflux and augmented resistance to in vitro HIV-1-infection. Conclusions: Results herein show that in HESN sterol metabolism might be particularly efficient. This could be related to the activation of the IFNα pathway and results into a reduced susceptibility to in vitro HIV-1 infection. These results suggest a possible basis for therapeutic interventions to modulate HIV-1 infection.
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
AIDS
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/738887
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