Plastid genes in higher plants are transcribed by at least two different RNA polymerases, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP), a bacteria-like core enzyme whose subunits are encoded by plastid genes (rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1 and rpoC2), and the nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP), a monomeric bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase. Both PEP and NEP enzymes are active in non-green plastids and in chloroplasts at all developmental stages. Their transcriptional activity is affected by endogenous and exogenous factors and requires a strict coordination within the plastid and with the nuclear gene expression machinery. This review focuses on the different molecular mechanisms underlying chloroplast transcription regulation and its coordination with the photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) expression. Particular attention is given to the link between NEP and PEP activity and the GUN1- (Genomes Uncoupled 1) mediated chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde communication with respect to the Δrpo adaptive response, i.e. the increased accumulation of NEP-dependent transcripts upon depletion of PEP activity, and the editing-level changes observed in NEP-dependent transcripts, including rpoB and rpoC1, in gun1 cotyledons after norflurazon or lincomycin treatment. The role of cytosolic preproteins and HSP90 chaperone as components of the GUN1-retrograde signalling pathway, when chloroplast biogenesis is inhibited in Arabidopsis cotyledons, is also discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Retrograde signalling from endosymbiotic organelles'.

The plastid transcription machinery and its coordination with the expression of nuclear genome: Plastid-Encoded Polymerase, Nuclear-Encoded Polymerase and the Genomes Uncoupled 1-mediated retrograde communication / L. Tadini, N. Jeran, C. Peracchio, S. Masiero, M. Colombo, P. Pesaresi. - In: PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS - ROYAL SOCIETY. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 0962-8436. - 375:1801(2020 Jun 22). [10.1098/rstb.2019.0399]

The plastid transcription machinery and its coordination with the expression of nuclear genome: Plastid-Encoded Polymerase, Nuclear-Encoded Polymerase and the Genomes Uncoupled 1-mediated retrograde communication

L. Tadini
Primo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
N. Jeran
Secondo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
C. Peracchio
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
S. Masiero
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
M. Colombo
Penultimo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
P. Pesaresi
Ultimo
Membro del Collaboration Group
2020

Abstract

Plastid genes in higher plants are transcribed by at least two different RNA polymerases, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP), a bacteria-like core enzyme whose subunits are encoded by plastid genes (rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1 and rpoC2), and the nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP), a monomeric bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase. Both PEP and NEP enzymes are active in non-green plastids and in chloroplasts at all developmental stages. Their transcriptional activity is affected by endogenous and exogenous factors and requires a strict coordination within the plastid and with the nuclear gene expression machinery. This review focuses on the different molecular mechanisms underlying chloroplast transcription regulation and its coordination with the photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) expression. Particular attention is given to the link between NEP and PEP activity and the GUN1- (Genomes Uncoupled 1) mediated chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde communication with respect to the Δrpo adaptive response, i.e. the increased accumulation of NEP-dependent transcripts upon depletion of PEP activity, and the editing-level changes observed in NEP-dependent transcripts, including rpoB and rpoC1, in gun1 cotyledons after norflurazon or lincomycin treatment. The role of cytosolic preproteins and HSP90 chaperone as components of the GUN1-retrograde signalling pathway, when chloroplast biogenesis is inhibited in Arabidopsis cotyledons, is also discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Retrograde signalling from endosymbiotic organelles'.
Arabidopsis thaliana; RNA polymerases; cotyledons; photosynthesis; plastid; retrograde communication
Settore BIO/18 - Genetica
Settore BIO/04 - Fisiologia Vegetale
   SOUP: Signalingg the Organelle Unfolded Protein response
   MINISTERO DELL'ISTRUZIONE E DEL MERITO
   2017FBS8YN_001
22-giu-2020
4-mag-2020
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/732908
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