Lipid rafts are small, dynamic membrane areas characterized by the clustering of selected membrane lipids as the result of the spontaneous separation of glycolipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol in a liquid-ordered phase. The exact dynamics underlying phase separation of membrane lipids in the complex biological membranes are still not fully understood. Nevertheless, alterations in the membrane lipid composition affect the lateral organization of molecules belonging to lipid rafts. Neural lipid rafts are found in brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, and are characterized by a high enrichment of specific lipids depending on the cell type. These lipid rafts seem to organize and determine the function of multiprotein complexes involved in several aspects of signal transduction, thus regulating the homeostasis of the brain. The progressive decline of brain performance along with physiological aging is at least in part associated with alterations in the composition and structure of neural lipid rafts. In addition, neurodegenerative conditions, such as lysosomal storage disorders, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's diseases, are frequently characterized by dysregulated lipid metabolism, which in turn affects the structure of lipid rafts. Several events underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases appear to depend on the altered composition of lipid rafts. Thus, the structure and function of lipid rafts play a central role in the pathogenesis of many common neurodegenerative diseases.
Lipid rafts and neurodegeneration: structural and functional roles in physiologic aging and neurodegenerative diseases / S. Grassi, P. Giussani, L. Mauri, S. Prioni, S. Sonnino, A. Prinetti. - In: JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH. - ISSN 0022-2275. - 61:5(2020), pp. 636-654.
|Titolo:||Lipid rafts and neurodegeneration: structural and functional roles in physiologic aging and neurodegenerative diseases|
GRASSI, SARA (Primo)
GIUSSANI, PAOLA CARLA (Secondo)
PRINETTI, ALESSANDRO ENNIO GIUSEPPE (Ultimo) (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||lipid membrane domains; liquid-ordered phase; sphingolipids; gangliosides; cholesterol|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.TR119000427|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|