The aim of the present study was to evaluate, through a survey conducted on commercial farms, the global warming potential (GWP) of different lactating cow total mixed rations (TMR) and to identify the best dietary strategies to increase feed efficiency (FE) and reduce enteric CH4 emission. A total of 171 dairy herds were selected: data about dry matter intake (DMI), lactating cow TMR composition, and milk production and composition were provided by farmers. Diet GWP (kg of CO2 equivalents; CO2eq) was calculated as sum of GWP (kg of CO2eq) of each included ingredient, considering inputs needed at field level, feed processing, and transport. For soybean solvent meal, land use change was included in the assessment. Enteric methane production (g/d) was estimated [using the equation CH4 (g/d) = 2.54 + 19.14 × DMI] to calculate CH4 emission for kilograms of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The data set was analyzed by generalized linear model and logistic analysis using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The frequency distribution showed wide variation among farms for GWP (kg of CO2eq) of TMR: approximately 25% of the surveyed farms showed a diet GWP of 15 kg of CO2eq, 20% showed a GWP of 13 kg of CO2eq, and 16.7% showed a GWP of 17 kg of CO2eq. The variation among farms was due to the feedstuffs used. Among feedstuffs, soybean meal (SBM) had the highest correlation with the GWP of the TMR as shown by the following equation: TMR GWP (kg of CO2eq) = 2.49 × kg of SBM + 6.9 (R2 = 0.547). Moreover, diets with inclusion of SBM >15% of dry matter (DM) did not result in higher milk production than diets with a lower inclusion of SBM (≤15%). Average daily milk production of cows was 29.8 [standard deviation (SD) 4.83] kg with fat and protein contents of 3.86% (SD 0.22) and 3.40% (SD 0.14), respectively. The average DMI (kg/d) of lactating cows was 22.3 (SD 2.23). Logistic analysis demonstrated that corn silage ≤30% of diet DM was associated with higher FE. Almost 50% of farms had an average value of 15.0 g of CH4/kg of FPCM and about 30% of farms had an average of 12.5 g of CH4/kg of FPCM. The results demonstrated that lower enteric CH4 production was related to inclusion (% of diet DM) of ≤12% alfalfa hay and >30% corn silage. Diets with >34% neutral detergent fiber had higher CH4 production (>14.0 g/kg of FPCM) than those with lower neutral detergent fiber content. In contrast, lower enteric CH4 production (≤14.0 g/kg of FPCM) was related to diets characterized by net energy of lactation (NEL) >1.61 Mcal/kg and >4% ether extract. The variability in TMR GWP shows significant potential for reducing the GWP of a diet through choice and inclusion levels of ingredients (mainly SBM) and the possibility of decreasing methane enteric emission associated with milk production on a commercial scale.
Looking for high-production and sustainable diets for lactating cows : A survey in Italy / G. Gislon, L. Bava, S. Colombini, M. Zucali, G.M. Crovetto, A. Sandrucci. - In: JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0022-0302. - 103:5(2020 May), pp. 4863-4873.
|Titolo:||Looking for high-production and sustainable diets for lactating cows : A survey in Italy|
COLOMBINI, STEFANIA (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||diet composition; enteric methane emission; feed efficiency; global warming potential|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/19 - Zootecnica Speciale|
Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale
|Data di pubblicazione:||mag-2020|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||26-feb-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17177|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|