The development of powerful sequencing techniques has allowed, albeit with some biases, the identification and inventory of complex microbial communities that inhabit different body sites or body fluids, some of which were previously considered sterile. Notably, milk is now considered to host a complex microbial community with great diversity. Milk microbiota is now well documented in various hosts. Based on the growing literature on this microbial community, we address here the question of what milk microbiota is. We summarize and compare the microbial composition of milk in humans and in ruminants and address the existence of a putative core milk microbiota. We discuss the factors that contribute to shape the milk microbiota or affect its composition, including host and environmental factors as well as methodological factors, such as the sampling and sequencing techniques, which likely introduce distortion in milk microbiota analysis. The roles that milk microbiota are likely to play in the mother and offspring physiology and health are presented together with recent data on the hypothesis of an enteromammary pathway. At last, this fascinating field raises a series of questions, which are listed and commented here and which open new research avenues.
Milk microbiota : what are we exactly talking about? / G. Oikonomou, M.F. Addis, C. Chassard, M.E.F. Nader-Macias, I. Grant, C. Delbès, C.I. Bogni, Y. Le Loir, S. Even. - In: FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-302X. - 11(2020 Feb 14), pp. 60.1-60.15.
|Titolo:||Milk microbiota : what are we exactly talking about?|
ADDIS, MARIA FILIPPA (Secondo)
|Parole Chiave:||milk microbiota; mammary gland; metagenomics; microbial community; enteromammary pathway; offspring gastrointestinal microbiota|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/19 - Microbiologia Generale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||14-feb-2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00060|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|