Odors have received increasing attention among atmospheric pollutants. Indeed, odor emissions are a common source of complaints, affecting the quality of life of humans and animals. The odor is a property of a mixture of different volatile chemical species (sulfur, nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds) capable of stimulating the olfaction sense sufficiently to trigger a sensation of odor. The impact of odors on the surrounding areas depends on different factors, such as the amount of odors emitted from the site, the distance from the site, weather conditions, topography, other than odors sensitivity and tolerance of the neighborhood. Due to the complexity of the odor issue, the aim of this review was to give an overview of: (i) techniques (sensorial and analytical) that can be used to determine a quantitative and qualitative characterization; (ii) air dispersion models applied for the evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric pollutants in terms of concentration in air and/or deposition in the studied domain; (iii) major sources of odor nuisance (waste and livestock); (iv) mitigation actions against odor impact. Among sensorial techniques dynamic olfactometry, field inspection, and recording from residents were considered; whereas, for analytical methodologies: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, identification of specific compounds, and electronic nose. Both kinds of techniques evaluate the odor concentration. Instead, to account for the effective impact of odors on the population, air dispersion models are used. They can provide estimates of odor levels in both current and future emission scenarios. Moreover, they can be useful to estimate the efficiency of mitigation strategies. Most of the odor control strategies involve measures oriented to prevent, control dispersion, minimize the nuisance or remove the odorants from emissions, such as adequate process design, buffer zones, odor covers, and treatment technologies.
Measurements techniques and models to assess odor annoyance: A review / C. Conti, M. Guarino, J. Bacenetti. - In: ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL. - ISSN 0160-4120. - 134(2020 Jan).
|Titolo:||Measurements techniques and models to assess odor annoyance: A review|
CONTI, CECILIA (Primo)
GUARINO, MARCELLA (Secondo)
BACENETTI, JACOPO (Ultimo) (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Odor; Nuisance; Odor measurement; Air dispersion models; Waste; Livestock|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/09 - Meccanica Agraria|
Settore AGR/10 - Costruzioni Rurali e Territorio Agroforestale
|Progetto:||PIANO DI SOSTEGNO ALLA RICERCA 2015-2017 - LINEA 2 "DOTAZIONE ANNUALE PER ATTIVITA' ISTITUZIONALE"|
|Data di pubblicazione:||gen-2020|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||6-nov-2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105261|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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