The developmental morphology of male and female kiwifruit flowers is tracked to delimit a framework of events to aid the study of divergence in floral gene expression. The transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual development of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch) flowers has been reported previously, but differences in gene expression controlling sexual development for this species have not been associated with the major developmental changes occurring within pistils. We investigated the key stages in male and female flower development to define the point at which meristematic activities diverge in the two sexes. A combination of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy was used to investigate pistil development from the earliest stages. We identified seven distinct stages characterized by differences in ovary size and shape, macrosporogenesis, ovule primordium development, anther locule lengthening, microspore wall thickening, and pollen degeneration. Sex differences were evident from the initial stage of development, with a laterally compacted gynoecium in male flowers. However, the key developmental stage, at which tissue differentiation clearly deviated between the two sexes, was stage 3, when flowers were 3.5 to 4.5 mm in length at approximately 10 d from initiation of stamen development. At this stage, male flowers lacked evident carpel meristem development as denoted by a lack of ovule primordium formation. Pollen degeneration in female flowers, probably driven by programmed cell death, occurred at the late stage 6, while the final stage 7 was represented by pollen release. As the seven developmental stages are associated with specific morphological differences, including flower size, the scheme suggested here can provide the required framework for the future study of gene expression during the regulation of flower development in this crop species.
Sex change in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) : a developmental framework for the bisexual to unisexual floral transition / E. Caporali, R. Testolin, S. Pierce, A. Spada. - In: PLANT REPRODUCTION. - ISSN 2194-7953. - 32:3(2019 Sep), pp. 323-330.
|Titolo:||Sex change in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) : a developmental framework for the bisexual to unisexual floral transition|
CAPORALI, ELISABETTA (Primo)
PIERCE, SIMON (Penultimo)
SPADA, ALBERTO (Ultimo) (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Actinidia; Sex determination; Ovule development; Pistil development|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/01 - Botanica Generale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00497-019-00373-w|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|