Background and objectives: Few and mainly cross-sectional studies of glucose homeostasis are available in HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of the present study was to describe a 4-year course of glucose homeostasis in a cohort of HAART-treated children and adolescents, using glucose and insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as outcome measures. In addition, we investigated possible risk factors, both related and unrelated to antiretroviral therapy, associated with insulin resistance. Methods: We assessed glucose metabolism yearly for 4 consecutive years in 37 HIV-infected children receiving a protease inhibitor (PI)-based HAART regimen containing lamivudine/stavudine plus indinavir or ritonavir or nelfinavir or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based HAART regimen containing lamivudine/tenofovir/efavirenz. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the relationship between the log(e)-transformed area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) of insulin during OGTT and antiretroviral therapy, controlling for time, sex, baseline age, puberty, body mass index and CD4+ T cells percentage. Results: Ritonavir-unboosted PI-based HAART regimens were administered to most children at baseline; however, their use decreased during follow-up in favour of an NNRTI-based regimen. The nelfinavir/lamivudine/stavudine (regression coefficient = -0.69, p < 0.05) and efavirenz/lamivudine/tenofovir (regression coefficient = -0.93, p < 0.05) regimens, but not the ritonavir/lamivudine/stavudine regimen, were negatively associated with log(e)-transformed insulin AUC compared with indinavir/lamivudine/stavudine. Puberty was positively associated with log(e)-transformed insulin AUC. Conclusions: This 4-year prospective study of HAART-treated HIV-infected children shows that: (i) the nelfinavir/lamivudine/stavudine and the efavirenz/ lamivudine/tenofovir regimens but not the ritonavir/lamivudine/stavudine regimen were associated with higher insulin sensivity, i.e. lower insulin AUC, compared with indinavir/lamivudine/stavudine; (ii) the treatment switched substantially in favour of NNRTI from the third year on and this change was associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity compared with the previous HAART-based regimens; and (iii) puberty is a primary determinant of insulin sensitivity.
Long-term evaluation of glucose homeostasis in a cohort of HAART treated HIV-infected children : a longitudinal, observational cohort study / A. Viganò, P. Brambilla, G. Pattarino, S. Stucchi, S. Fasan, C. Raimondi, C. Cerini, V. Giacomet, G. Zuccotti, G. Bedogni. - In: CLINICAL DRUG INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 1173-2563. - 29:2(2009), pp. 101-109.
|Titolo:||Long-term evaluation of glucose homeostasis in a cohort of HAART treated HIV-infected children : a longitudinal, observational cohort study|
|Parole Chiave:||Human-immunodeficiency-virus; beta-cell function; insulin-resistance; protease inhibitors; antiretroviral therapy; diabetes-mellitus; risk-factors; lipodystrophy; sensitivity; dysplipidemia|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/0044011-200929020-00004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|