Due to increasing bacterial resistance and poor availability of new antibiotics, physicians need to use old, still active antibiotics more frequently. In this study, we focused on clo-foctol and aimed to verify the emergence of clofoctol resistance over time. Additionally, the ability of clofoctol to induce resistance under static and dynamic conditions was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values measured in pathogens isolated from 1990 to 1995 were compared to those isolated from 2017 to 2018. The behaviour of clofoctol is similar to that of amoxicillin, while erythromycin shows a different behaviour with an increase in MIC. A rapid decline in CFUs with complete eradication at 96 and 120 h in the case of clofoctol and amoxicillin, respectively, was observed in a dynamic in vitro model of a pharmacokinetic simulation. Erythromycin provides a reduction in CFUs of approximately one order of magnitude for up to 72 h, and then re-growth is observed. The MIC trend was observed during 5 days of kinetic simulation. The clofoctol MICs remain almost stable up to 96 h, after which the colonies are no longer detectable. The MICs of amoxicillin show a 2-fold increase starting from 36 h; however, at 120 h the colonies are no longer detectable. The MICs of erythromycin show a progressive increase starting from 72 h and reaching 32-fold. Clofoctol maintains its activity towards the common pathogens of respiratory tract infections and, similarly to amoxicillin, does not induce resistance in a strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, resulting in complete eradication, while erythromycin was able to select resistant mutants. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Comparative Emergence of Resistance to Clofoctol, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin against Community-Acquired Bacterial Respiratory Tract Pathogens in Italy / F. Scaglione, V. Lucini, S. Dugnani, A. Pani. - In: CHEMOTHERAPY. - ISSN 0009-3157. - 63:6(2019 Mar 25), pp. 330-337.

Comparative Emergence of Resistance to Clofoctol, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin against Community-Acquired Bacterial Respiratory Tract Pathogens in Italy

V. Lucini
Secondo
;
S. Dugnani
Penultimo
;
A. Pani
Ultimo
2019-03-25

Abstract

Due to increasing bacterial resistance and poor availability of new antibiotics, physicians need to use old, still active antibiotics more frequently. In this study, we focused on clo-foctol and aimed to verify the emergence of clofoctol resistance over time. Additionally, the ability of clofoctol to induce resistance under static and dynamic conditions was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values measured in pathogens isolated from 1990 to 1995 were compared to those isolated from 2017 to 2018. The behaviour of clofoctol is similar to that of amoxicillin, while erythromycin shows a different behaviour with an increase in MIC. A rapid decline in CFUs with complete eradication at 96 and 120 h in the case of clofoctol and amoxicillin, respectively, was observed in a dynamic in vitro model of a pharmacokinetic simulation. Erythromycin provides a reduction in CFUs of approximately one order of magnitude for up to 72 h, and then re-growth is observed. The MIC trend was observed during 5 days of kinetic simulation. The clofoctol MICs remain almost stable up to 96 h, after which the colonies are no longer detectable. The MICs of amoxicillin show a 2-fold increase starting from 36 h; however, at 120 h the colonies are no longer detectable. The MICs of erythromycin show a progressive increase starting from 72 h and reaching 32-fold. Clofoctol maintains its activity towards the common pathogens of respiratory tract infections and, similarly to amoxicillin, does not induce resistance in a strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, resulting in complete eradication, while erythromycin was able to select resistant mutants. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
Amoxicillin; Bacterial resistance; Clofoctol; Erythromycin; Oncology; Pharmacology; Drug Discovery; 3003 Pharmaceutical Science; Pharmacology (medical); Infectious Diseases
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/638557
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