Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 °C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid < total procyanidins < dihydrochalcones and p-coumaric acid < chlorogenic acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.
|Titolo:||Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity|
LAVELLI, VERA AGNESE (Primo)
|Parole Chiave:||Antioxidant; Apple; Color; Degradation; Malus domestica; Water activity|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/15 - Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/jf900176v|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|