A rosy discoloration partly masking the Luca Signorelli frescoes in St. Brizio Chapel (Orvieto Cathedral, Italy) for many years proved to be a biological alteration, so the present research focused on investigating biodeteriogens and selecting an appropriate biocide to treat them. Optical epifluorescence and electronic microscopic observations of the rosy powder revealed a prevalent autofluorescent coccoid form with a diameter bigger than 5 μm. Chlorophylls a and b were extracted, suggesting the presence of cyanobacteria, a thesis subsequently confirmed by flow cytometry. Cultural media were inoculated with the rosy powder, and microorganisms grew as a green patina in phototrophic conditions and as a rosy patina when organic compounds were added to the mineral medium. The rosy discoloration was most likely caused by the presence of phycoerythrin. The sequencing of the cyanobacteriaspecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–DGGE bands matched, with a similarity percentage >94, uncultured cyanobacteria, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank under EU874241, EU874242, EU874243, EU874244, EU874245, EU874246, and EU874247. Finally, the efficiency of the two biocides Neo Desogen and Metatin 5810-101, both based on benzalkonium chloride, was evaluated using adenosine triphosphate measurements and PCR-based detection of cyanobacteria. Metatin, used in situ at 2% of the trade product, proved to be the better biocide, no cyanobacteria being detected after the Metatin treatment.
|Titolo:||Detection and Elimination of Cyanobacteria from Frescoes : The Case of the St. Brizio Chapel (Orvieto Cathedral, Italy)|
|Parole Chiave:||RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENES ; MICROORGANISMS ; LIGHT ; ART ; PCR|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||22-lug-2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00248-008-9441-4|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|