In the present Thesis we study the behavior of multi-time correlation functions and of thermodynamical quantities such as heat in open quantum systems undergoing an evolution generally affected by the presence of memory effects, i.e. non-Markovian. In the last decade, a large part of the scientific community in this field has dedicated its efforts to the understanding, precise definition and quantification of non-Markovianity in the quantum realm and now we have at our disposal several benchmark results and a plethora of different estimators that allow to determine the degree of non-Markovianity of a given dynamics. It comes therefore natural to investigate how other different dynamical quantities relate to such estimators also in order to understand the physical implications of memory effects on the statistics of observable quantities. In the first part of this work, a quantitative test of the violation of the so-called quantum regression theorem in presence of a non-Markovian dynamical regime is investigated. The quantum regression theorem represents a procedure that, whenever valid, allows to reconstruct two-time correlation functions of system's operators from the sole knowledge of the dynamics of mean values. It is worth stressing that two-time correlation functions are necessary in order to fully characterize the statistical properties of a quantum system, since they are able to catch aspects of the dynamics, such as fluorescence spectrum, in general not accessible looking at mean values. Despite their relevance however, obtaining two-time correlation functions often represents a formidable task, since the knowledge of the full "system+environment" dynamics is required, a generally too demanding request in the context of open quantum systems theory. The quantum regression theorem represents in this regard the easiest route to determine two-time correlation functions, this highlighting its importance. In this work we show that, in a pure-dephasing spin-boson model, the quantum regression theorem represents a stronger condition than non-Markovianity, in the sense that any presence of memory effects in the reduced dynamics inevitably results in violations to the former. These results have been published in [G.Guarnieri, A. Smirne, B. Vacchini, Phys. Rev. A 90, 022110 (2014)]. The second part of the Thesis is devoted to the characterization of heat ow at the microscopic level in open quantum systems, both finite and infinite dimensional. In particular we begin by studying the time behavior of its mean value in a non-Markovian dynamical regime, showing that, at variance with what happens in the Born-Markov semigroup limiting case, heat can backflow from the environment to the system. After providing a condition for the occurrence of such phenomenon and a measure for its amount for a given dynamics, the relationship with suitable non-Markovianity estimators is sought in two paradigmatic models, namely the spin-boson and the quantum brownian motion. The results, collected in [ G. Guarnieri, C. Uchiyama, B. Vacchini, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012118 (2016); G. Guarnieri, J. Nokkala, R. Schmidt, S. Maniscalco, B. Vacchini, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062101 (2016)], on the one hand allow for the identification of parameter-regions where the heat backflow is absent or maximum. On the other hand they show that the occurrence of heat backflow represents a stricter condition than non-Markovianity, in the sense that non-Markovianity allows for the observation of heat flowing back from the environment to the system and, vice versa, a Markovian dynamics prevents its occurrence. This Thesis concludes with the formulation of a new family of lower bounds to the mean dissipated heat in an environmental-assisted erasure-protocol scenario where Landauer's principle applies. As originally conceived for classical systems, this principle states that every irreversible erasure of information stored in a system inevitably carries along an amount of heat dissipated into the environment which is expended to perform the action. Within the framework recently put forward in [D. Reeb, M. M. Wolf, New J. Phys. 16, 103011 (2014)], which guarantees the validity of Landauer's principle in an open quantum systems scenario, we provide an asymptotically tight family of lower bounds to the dissipated heat which are also valid in the non-equilibrium setting. This construction is applied to an open system consisting of a three-level V-system, in which one transition is externally pumped by a laser field while the other is coupled through an XX-interaction to an environment consisting of a spin chain. Beside calculating all these quantities, an exact solution for the dynamics of such system is also provided. These results are collected in [G. Guarnieri, S. Campbell, J. Goold, S. Pigeon, M. Paternostro, B. Vacchini, in preparation].

Characterizzation of dynamical properties of non-Markovian open quantum systems / G. Guarnieri ; supervisore: B. Vacchini ; coordinator: F. Ragusa. - : . DIPARTIMENTO DI FISICA, 2017 Jan 19. ((29. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2016. [10.13130/guarnieri-giacomo_phd2017-01-19].

Characterizzation of dynamical properties of non-Markovian open quantum systems

G. Guarnieri
2017-01-19

Abstract

In the present Thesis we study the behavior of multi-time correlation functions and of thermodynamical quantities such as heat in open quantum systems undergoing an evolution generally affected by the presence of memory effects, i.e. non-Markovian. In the last decade, a large part of the scientific community in this field has dedicated its efforts to the understanding, precise definition and quantification of non-Markovianity in the quantum realm and now we have at our disposal several benchmark results and a plethora of different estimators that allow to determine the degree of non-Markovianity of a given dynamics. It comes therefore natural to investigate how other different dynamical quantities relate to such estimators also in order to understand the physical implications of memory effects on the statistics of observable quantities. In the first part of this work, a quantitative test of the violation of the so-called quantum regression theorem in presence of a non-Markovian dynamical regime is investigated. The quantum regression theorem represents a procedure that, whenever valid, allows to reconstruct two-time correlation functions of system's operators from the sole knowledge of the dynamics of mean values. It is worth stressing that two-time correlation functions are necessary in order to fully characterize the statistical properties of a quantum system, since they are able to catch aspects of the dynamics, such as fluorescence spectrum, in general not accessible looking at mean values. Despite their relevance however, obtaining two-time correlation functions often represents a formidable task, since the knowledge of the full "system+environment" dynamics is required, a generally too demanding request in the context of open quantum systems theory. The quantum regression theorem represents in this regard the easiest route to determine two-time correlation functions, this highlighting its importance. In this work we show that, in a pure-dephasing spin-boson model, the quantum regression theorem represents a stronger condition than non-Markovianity, in the sense that any presence of memory effects in the reduced dynamics inevitably results in violations to the former. These results have been published in [G.Guarnieri, A. Smirne, B. Vacchini, Phys. Rev. A 90, 022110 (2014)]. The second part of the Thesis is devoted to the characterization of heat ow at the microscopic level in open quantum systems, both finite and infinite dimensional. In particular we begin by studying the time behavior of its mean value in a non-Markovian dynamical regime, showing that, at variance with what happens in the Born-Markov semigroup limiting case, heat can backflow from the environment to the system. After providing a condition for the occurrence of such phenomenon and a measure for its amount for a given dynamics, the relationship with suitable non-Markovianity estimators is sought in two paradigmatic models, namely the spin-boson and the quantum brownian motion. The results, collected in [ G. Guarnieri, C. Uchiyama, B. Vacchini, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012118 (2016); G. Guarnieri, J. Nokkala, R. Schmidt, S. Maniscalco, B. Vacchini, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062101 (2016)], on the one hand allow for the identification of parameter-regions where the heat backflow is absent or maximum. On the other hand they show that the occurrence of heat backflow represents a stricter condition than non-Markovianity, in the sense that non-Markovianity allows for the observation of heat flowing back from the environment to the system and, vice versa, a Markovian dynamics prevents its occurrence. This Thesis concludes with the formulation of a new family of lower bounds to the mean dissipated heat in an environmental-assisted erasure-protocol scenario where Landauer's principle applies. As originally conceived for classical systems, this principle states that every irreversible erasure of information stored in a system inevitably carries along an amount of heat dissipated into the environment which is expended to perform the action. Within the framework recently put forward in [D. Reeb, M. M. Wolf, New J. Phys. 16, 103011 (2014)], which guarantees the validity of Landauer's principle in an open quantum systems scenario, we provide an asymptotically tight family of lower bounds to the dissipated heat which are also valid in the non-equilibrium setting. This construction is applied to an open system consisting of a three-level V-system, in which one transition is externally pumped by a laser field while the other is coupled through an XX-interaction to an environment consisting of a spin chain. Beside calculating all these quantities, an exact solution for the dynamics of such system is also provided. These results are collected in [G. Guarnieri, S. Campbell, J. Goold, S. Pigeon, M. Paternostro, B. Vacchini, in preparation].
VACCHINI, BASSANO MARIA
VACCHINI, BASSANO MARIA
RAGUSA, FRANCESCO
Open Quantum Systems; non-Markovianity; Quantum Regression Theorem; Heat; Thermodynamics; Full-counting Statistics; Large-deviation Theory; Master Equation
Settore FIS/02 - Fisica Teorica, Modelli e Metodi Matematici
http://hdl.handle.net/2434/246782
http://hdl.handle.net/2434/387129
http://hdl.handle.net/2434/468257
Characterizzation of dynamical properties of non-Markovian open quantum systems / G. Guarnieri ; supervisore: B. Vacchini ; coordinator: F. Ragusa. - : . DIPARTIMENTO DI FISICA, 2017 Jan 19. ((29. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2016. [10.13130/guarnieri-giacomo_phd2017-01-19].
Doctoral Thesis
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
phd_unimi_R10507.pdf

embargo fino al 17/07/2017

Descrizione: Versione finale della Tesi di Dottorato di Giacomo Guarnieri
Tipologia: Tesi di dottorato completa
Dimensione 7.96 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
7.96 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Caricamento pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/468262
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact