The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3×1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modeling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.

Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory / A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, E.J. Ahn, I. Al Samarai, I.F.M. Albuquerque, I. Allekotte, P. Allison, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez Muñiz, R. Alves Batista, M. Ambrosio, L. Anchordoqui, B. Andrada, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, F. Arqueros, N. Arsene, H. Asorey, P. Assis, J. Aublin, G. Avila, N. Awal, A.M. Badescu, C. Baus, J.J. Beatty, K.H. Becker, J.A. Bellido, C. Berat, M.E. Bertaina, X. Bertou, P.L. Biermann, P. Billoir, S.G. Blaess, A. Blanco, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, H. Blümer, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, N. Borodai, A.M. Botti, J. Brack, I. Brancus, T. Bretz, A. Bridgeman, F.L. Briechle, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, K.S. Caballero Mora, B. Caccianiga, L. Caccianiga, A. Cancio, M. Candusso, L. Caramete, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, R. Cester, A.G. Chavez, A. Chiavassa, J.A. Chinellato, J.C. Chirinos Diaz, J. Chudoba, R.W. 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Gorgi, P. Gorham, P. Gouffon, N. Griffith, A.F. Grillo, T.D. Grubb, F. Guarino, G.P. Guedes, M.R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, T.A. Harrison, J.L. Harton, Q. Hasankiadeh, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, P. Heimann, A.E. Herve, G.C. Hill, C. Hojvat, N. Hollon, E. Holt, P. Homola, J.R. Hörandel, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, T. Huege, A. Insolia, P.G. Isar, I. Jandt, S. Jansen, C. Jarne, J.A. Johnsen, M. Josebachuili, A. Kääpä, O. Kambeitz, K.H. Kampert, P. Kasper, I. Katkov, B. Keilhauer, E. Kemp, R.M. Kieckhafer, H.O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, R. Krause, N. Krohm, D. Kuempel, G. Kukec Mezek, N. Kunka, A. Kuotb Awad, D. Lahurd, L. Latronico, M. Lauscher, P. Lautridou, P. Lebrun, M.A. Leigui De Oliveira, A. Letessier Selvon, I. Lhenry Yvon, K. Link, L. Lopes, R. López, A. López Casado, A. Lucero, M. Malacari, M. Mallamaci, D. Mandat, P. Mantsch, A.G. Mariazzi, V. Marin, I.C. Mariş, G. Marsella, D. Martello, H. Martinez, O. Martínez Bravo, J.J. Masías Meza, H.J. Mathes, S. 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Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

B. Caccianiga;L. Caccianiga;M. Mallamaci;L. Miramonti;
2016

Abstract

The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (secθ)max, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3×1018 eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modeling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (secθ)max.
Nuclear and High Energy Physics
Settore FIS/01 - Fisica Sperimentale
Settore FIS/04 - Fisica Nucleare e Subnucleare
Settore FIS/05 - Astronomia e Astrofisica
PHYSICAL REVIEW D
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/387528
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