The general aim of this thesis was to investigate new technology in feed formulation and production. For this purpose several aspects in the field of feed production were investigated. Specifically, during the course of this PhD program, three main sub aims have been addressed: i) evaluation of new ingredients, i.e., insect materials, in feed formulation and the impact of feed technology on their nutritional value; ii) improvements in the official methods for detecting Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs), and iii) investigation of the innovation, research, and development needs in in the feed industry in two selected areas. With respect to the first sub aim, fresh insect (Hermetia illucens) material was evaluated as an alternative protein source in experimental feed. Differents experimental formulae containing insect material were tested under differing extrusion conditions. Extruded feed was also evaluated for digestibility. The results indicate that fresh Hermetia illucens material can be efficiently included in experimental extruded feed containing 25% insect material and 75% wheat. Technological treatment, i.e., extrusion, increased in vitro organic matter digestibility, and did not affect protein digestibility. With regard to the second sub-aim the basic assumption was that insect material, if authorized, should be considered as animal material. Accordingly, the second sub aim of the thesis focused on implementing existing methods for processing animal protein and investigating their potential in tracing and characterizing insect material. In this scenario, experiments were aimed toward improving the official microscopy techniques for detecting processed animal proteins (PAP) by combining those with image analysis (IA) technology. The studies conducted aim to i) characterize fish meal material in compound feed (i.e., aquafeed), ii) identify specific selected markers able to efficiently distinguish between fish and terrestrial materials, iii) distinguish between mammalian materials, and iv) verify the applicability of the method for identifying insect material in feed. The results obtained in this context indicated that even though microscopy seems to be a promising approach for identifying both animal proteins and insect material, using microscopy alone has some limitations; therefore, a combined approach with other methods (i.e., PCR) is recommended. With regard to the third sub aim, research and development needs and innovation in the feed industry, the results of a targeted survey conducted in two countries (Italy and Serbia) showed that innovation in raw materials is a key factor for large multinational industries. In contrast, the survey results obtained from small and medium feed companies are quite different; for these companies, cost reduction, decreased energy consumption, improved quality, improved market image, development of new markets and satisfying market demand are much more important. By combining the results obtained from the various studies described in this paper, it can be concluded that: i) Insects show great potential as a protein source in animal feeds. Specific selected feed technologies, such as extrusion, can be useful in making such feeds convenient and safe to use. ii) Assuming that insect material will be authorized for use in animal feeds, existing methods for processing animal proteins may represent an advantageous starting point. Further investigation and implementation of methods of analysis is still required. iii) Even though insect materials as animal nutrition can be considered as a “hot topic” from a scientific point of view, not everyone in the feed sector seems to be aware of the issue. Addressing “new ingredients”, co- and by- products remain the main categories in the feed sector mind consciousness.
|Titolo:||INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY IN FEED FORMULATION AND PRODUCTION|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||GANDOLFI, FULVIO|
|Data di pubblicazione:||15-dic-2015|
|Parole Chiave:||BSF; insect; feed technology; digestibility; extrusion; image analysis; microscopy; processed animal proteins (PAPs); feedneeds; research and development; feed industry|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale|
|Citazione:||INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY IN FEED FORMULATION AND PRODUCTION ; tutor: F. Cheli ; coordinatore: F. Gandolfi. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE VETERINARIE PER LA SALUTE, LA PRODUZIONE ANIMALE E LA SICUREZZA ALIMENTARE, 2015 Dec 15. ((28. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2015.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|