Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi and represent significant food safety challenges. Despite efforts to control fungal contamination, mycotoxins can contaminate food and feed materials, enter the body via ingestion of contaminated foods, and elicit acute and chronic adverse effects, as determined by animal studies, in vitro bioassays, and human epidemiological studies. It is difficult to get a complete understanding and an adequate modeling of mycotoxin health effects due to the complexity of the interactions between the numerous factors affecting the magnitude of mycotoxin toxicity, such as species sensitivity, level and time of exposure, individual sensitivity, age, health, nutritional status, bioaccessibility, mechanisms/modes of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In vivo investigations may provide information on mycotoxin net effects in whole animals, whereas cell-specific answers may result from in vitro investigations. Within in vitro systems, cell based tests, representing simplified biological systems, have become more and more realistic and representative of in vivo condition, and, therefore, may offer a suitable alternative to in vivo animal testing. The presentation will show examples of in vivo and in vitro tests for mycotoxin research. Advantages, drawbacks and technical problems regarding specific applications of each model test, the link between in vitro versus in vivo tests, the relevance of in vitro tests compared to in vivo test, and the predictive efficacy of in vitro tests will be discussed. The translation of in vitro data into meaningful in vivo effects remains an unsolved problem. Results of in vitro studies indicate that there is only partial agreement with those obtained in in vivo experiments. However, some emerging evidence of good in vitro tests is arising. Although we cannot yet simply extrapolate the results obtained in in vitro study to the in vivo exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, in vitro tests provide insights into how mycotoxins in food might enter into the organism and the mechanisms of action to attain health effects. An understanding of the mode of action in simple in vitro systems can provide a rational basis for predicting health effect of single and multi-mycotoxin contamination before any animal or human clinical studies. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo tests are complementary approaches to understand the “whole mycotoxin picture”, and lead to improved understanding of dietary relevant mycotoxin exposure and risk scenarios.
|Titolo:||Mycotoxin mechanisms of action and health effects : in vitro or in vivo tests, that's the question|
|Data di pubblicazione:||nov-2014|
|Parole Chiave:||feed food safety; mycotoxins; in vitro; in vivo|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale|
|Citazione:||Mycotoxin mechanisms of action and health effects : in vitro or in vivo tests, that's the question / F. Cheli. ((Intervento presentato al 8. convegno The World Mycotoxin Forum tenutosi a Vienna nel 2014.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||14 - Intervento a convegno non pubblicato|