Adenosine modulates the proliferation, survival and apoptosis of many different cell types, ranging from epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells, to cells of the immune and neural lineages. In this review, we critically discuss the available in vitro and in vivo data which support a role for adenosine in both development-associated apoptosis, and in diseases characterized by either pathologically increased cell death (e,g., ischemia, trauma and aging-associated neurodegeneration) or abnormally reduced spontaneous apoptosis (e.g., cancer). Particular emphasis is given to the possible role of extracellular adenosine receptors, since these may represent novel and attractive molecular targets for the pharmacological modulation of apoptosis. In some instances, adenosine-induced cell death has been demonstrated to require entry of the nucleoside inside cells; however, in many other cases, activation of specific adenosine extracellular receptors has been demonstrated. Of the four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors so far identified, the A(2A) and the A3 receptors have been specifically implicated in modulation of cell death. For the A3 receptor, results obtained by exposing both cardiomyocytes and brain astrocytes to graded concentrations of selective agonists suggest induction of both cell protection and cell death. Such opposite effects, which likely depend on the degree of receptor activation, may have important therapeutic implications in the pharmacological modulation of cardiac and brain ischemia. For the A2A receptor, recent intriguing data suggest a specific role in immune cell death and immunosuppression, which may be relevant to both adenosine-deaminase- immunodeficiency syndrome (a pathology characterized by accumulation of adenosine to toxic levels) and in tumors where induction of apoptosis via activation of specific extracellular receptors may be desirable. Finally, preliminary data suggest that, in a similar way to the adenosine-deaminase- immunodeficiency syndrome, the abnormal accumulation of adenosine in degenerative muscular diseases may contribute to muscle cell death. Although the role of adenosine receptors in this effect still remains to be determined, these data suggest that adenosine-induced apoptosis may also represent a novel pathogenic pathway in muscular dystrophies.
|Titolo:||Adenosine-induced cell death: evidence for receptor-mediated signalling|
CATTABENI, FLAMINIO NICOLA (Penultimo)
ABBRACCHIO, MARIA PIA (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1999|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1023/A:1009666707307|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|